常见问题解答
    Metal Cutting
    in General
  • What is the correct definition: cutting tool or metal cutting tool?
    Historically, metals were the main materials to produce machined parts. Therefore, cutting tools were intended primarily for machining metals, and this determined their name. Today the term "metal cutting tool" is rare enough, while simply "cutting tool" is much more common; and these two definitions have become synonyms.
  • What is "primary motion" and "feed motion"?
    In machining, the primary motion is a rectilinear or rotational motion of a cutting tool or a workpiece that provides the tool advance toward the workpiece to ensure chip removal. In a machining process, the primary motion features the maximum speed and most of the energy, which is required for machining, when compared to all other motions. The primary motion in turning, for example, is the rotation of a workpiece, while in milling, the primary motion is the rotation of a mill.

    The feed motion is a rectilinear or rotational motion of a cutting tool, which adds the primary motion to complete cutting action. This motion features significantly less speed when compared to the speed of a primary motion.
  • What is the difference between macro- and micro geometry of a cutting edge?
    Macro geometry of a cutting edge relates to the key elements of a tool cutting wedge that determine the tool cutting capabilities such as the shape of the rake face, the rake angles, the clearance angles etc. Micro geometry is a microscopic-scale condition of the edge, which is known also as the edge preparation. Depending on the edge condition, the edge can be sharp, rounded (honed), chamfered edge or combined comprising combinations of rounding and chamfering.
  • What is the difference between specific cutting forces that are designated as kc and kc1?
    "kc" relates to actual specific cutting force - the force that is needed to remove a material chip area of 1 mm2 (.0016 in2), which has actual average chip thickness maintained in a machining process.
    "kc1" is commonly used for designating the specific cutting force to remove a material chip area of 1 mm2 (.0016 in2) with 1 mm (.004 in) thickness.
    However, in some technical data sources, the actual specific cutting force may be designated by "kc1", and specific cutting force to remove a material chip area of 1 mm2 (.0016 in2) with 1 mm (.004 in) thickness by "kc1.1". Number "1" that follows index "c" relates to 1 mm2 chip area, and addition "1.1" highlights "1 mm2 chip area with 1 mm thickness".
  • 切削刀具是如何分类的?
    切削刀具的分类有其不同的特点。
    • 使用刀具来完成的加工工艺(车刀、铣刀、钻刀等)
    • 主要的运动方式(旋转、非旋转)
    • 刀具切削刃的数量(只有一个切削刃的单点刀具和有多个切削刃的多点刀具)
    • 刀具设计理念(整体或一体式刀具,以及拼装刀具)
    • 刀具安装方式(孔式工具、柄式工具)
    • 可调性(可调,不可调)
  • 哪种刀具被认为是标准刀具?
    “标准刀具”的定义具有一定的双重性。一方面,它可能意味着该刀具满足国家(国际)标准的要求。另一方面,刀具制造商使用这个定义来指定其标准交付的库存产品。
  • 正确的术语表达是什么,“钎焊刀具”还是“焊接刀具”?
    原则上,钎焊和焊接都涉及相同的加工过程:在这些部件之间使用熔融金属(填料)将各种材料连接在一起,而填料的熔点低于连接材料。钎焊和焊接之间的主要区别是工艺操作温度,焊接的操作温度较低,因此,所需填料的温度也是如此。与焊接的方式相比,钎焊连接通常更为牢固。对于切削刀具,使用术语“钎焊”更为准确。
    通用型可转位铣刀
  • 什么是切削角cutting edge angle,什么是主偏角lead angle?
    各种国际和国家标准非常精准地定义了切削刀具的动态几何构造。" 切削角 "是铣刀主切削刃与包含进给运动方向的平面之间的夹角。 "主偏角"(或 "接近角")与" 主切削角 "互为余角,即这两个角度之和为90°。 例如,对于一个典型的面铣刀来说,主偏角是切削刃和进给平面之间的角度,这是由刀具产生的。 如果主偏角为60°,那么另一个角度就是30°。 " 切削角 "和"主偏角" 仅当铣刀主偏角为45°时相等。 "主偏角lead angle "一词在美国更为常见,而"接近角approach angle "在欧洲更为常见。
  • "面铣刀"和"套式铣刀"之间的区别是什么?
    这两个术语涉及到铣刀的不同和互补的特征。在一些表述中它们是不能互换的。 铣刀按以下主要因素分类: 按加工表面类型:平面铣、方肩铣、三维曲面铣等 按刀具安装方法:芯轴式安装,杆式安装,或直接安装于主轴上 按结构:整体式;装配式 按刀具材料:高速钢、硬质合金、陶瓷等。
  • What is the difference between heavy and heavy-duty milling?
    Sometimes the terms “heavy” and “heavy-duty” are used mistakenly as synonyms. In principle, “heavy milling” (and “heavy machining") relates to milling large-sized and heavy-weight workpieces on powerful machine tools and refers more to the dimensions and mass of a workpiece. “Heavy-duty” specifies a degree of tool loading and mainly characterizes a mode of milling.
  • Which cutting conditions are considered as unfavorable and which are unstable?
    Unfavorable cutting conditions include:
    • workpiece with skin (siliceous or slag, for example)
    • significantly variable machining allowance
    • considerable impact load due to non-uniform machined surface
    • surface with high-abrasive inclusions
    Unstable cutting conditions refer to the low stability of a complete system (machine tool, workpiece holding fixture, cutting tool, workpiece) due to:
    • poor tool and workpiece holding
    • high tool overhang
    • non-rigid machine tools
    • thin-walled workpiece
    The terms "unfavorable" and "unstable" are not interchangeable.
  • How is average chip thickness measured?
    In milling, the thickness of chips is not constant and varies during cutting, depending on several factors. The average chip thickness (hm) is a virtual parameter that characterizes mechanical load on a milling cutter and a machine tool. There are different methods for calculating hm. The most common method is to compute it in relation to the half of an angle of engagement, where the latter is the central angle that corresponds to the arc of a contact between a milling cutter and a workpiece.
  • 什么是高压冷却(HPC)?什么是超高压冷却(UHPC)?
    高压冷却(HPC)与超高压冷却(UHPC)之间没有严格的界限。长期以来,机床冷却液压力范围为10-15 bar (145-217 psi)。这一压力区间现在被视作低压冷却。 各种现代化加工中心提供冷却压力范围为70-80 bar (1000-1200 psi)的选项,这一区间被视为高压冷却。超高压冷却相关冷却范围通常为100-200 bar (1450-2900 psi),甚至更高。 某些数控机床配套厂家也提供“中压冷却”泵;这类冷却泵输出的冷却液压力值不高于50 bar (725 psi)。
  • 采用高压冷却(HPC)进行铣削的好处是什么?
    切削加工产生切削热是其永恒不变的特点,尤其是铣削加工。如切削热过于集中,在常规低压冷却加工时,会在刀具与工件表面形成雾气层。该雾气层使得切削热被封住,形成绝缘层,使得热传递变得困难,这将大幅缩短刀具寿命。 高压冷却射流穿透绝缘层屏障,帮助克服解决这一问题。高压冷却使得切屑快速冷却,使其变硬变脆。切屑因此变得小而薄,从工件上折断脱落下来变得更容易。高速冷却射流将这些切屑冲走。这明显有利于改善排屑效果,并避免对切屑再次切削。 高压冷却通过降低对切削刃的氧化作用,粘附磨损以及提高抗裂强度来提高刀具寿命;高压冷却通过减小切屑尺寸以及高速冷却射流轻松裹挟走切屑来提高排屑性能;高压冷却还使得刀具因设计的排屑槽(排屑空间)更窄小从而能排布更多的齿数。高效冷却降低了切削区域的温度,确保铣刀切削宽度值更大。 总体而言,通过提高切削速度和进给,采用高压冷却为提高生产率提供了良好的方案。
  • 采用高压冷却(HPC),使其内冷却通道穿过刀体的铣削与车削之间有什么区别?
    在车削加工中,一把刀具仅有一个切削刃;而铣刀具有数个切削齿。铣刀冷却喷口数量比车刀更多。一把可转位玉米铣刀,其切削齿由成套的可更换刀片组成,需要设计非常多的冷却喷口。 冷却液压力、速度及冷却液流量之间有着特定的关系。在铣削加工中,高压冷却液流经刀体内冷却通道,得益于高压冷却泵的特点,确保输出恰合的冷却液流量(流速),而并不仅仅是迎合冷却压力需求。
  • 伊斯卡提供标准的高压冷却可转位铣刀刀具系列吗?
    是的,伊斯卡提供标准的高压冷却铣刀系列,用于钛合金件及高温合金件(HTSA)的加工。
  • 为什么在高压冷却可转位铣刀的冷却喷口处会采用冷却喷嘴?
    在冷却液出口处采用冷却喷嘴有两个原因:工艺和实用。高压冷却液流经刀体内冷却通道,不仅需要考虑小直径的喷口,还需要考虑其形状。因在淬硬钢质的刀体上钻孔会遭遇到技术难题,所以将冷却喷嘴经螺纹旋紧于冷却液出口是更加切实可行的选择。 如果可转位玉米铣刀的实际切削深度小于玉米铣刀本具的最大切削深度,那么对不参与切削的刀片就不必施以冷却。为提高加工性能,可将冷却喷嘴从冷却液出口处旋出取下,然而用堵头或标准的配套螺钉将冷却液出口堵上。
  • 为什么大量的高压冷却铣刀是非标定制的?
    高压冷却铣刀的主要消费者是难加工材料的生产加工企业,如加工钛合金的企业。在许多案例中,从毛坯到工件需要去除大量的金属材料。为扬升生产率,制造商们往往取用特别的机床,并抵达其最大运转刚性,他们更青睐整体式刀具,将其直接装夹于机床主轴上,而没有诸如心轴、接柄这类介于主轴及刀具之间的介质。刀具直径、切削长度以及悬伸这些特定细节,乃至柄部类型,各家制造商的要各式各样,因此需要非标定制高压冷却铣刀。
  • 伊斯卡可转位铣刀产品线都包括哪些系列?
    伊斯卡可转位铣刀产品线包含了所有主要的铣削应用:方肩铣,面铣,深方肩铣,三维仿形铣,槽铣,倒角铣等等。还有新开发的一种独立的产品线应用于大进给铣削(一种特殊的加工技术)。
  • 伊斯卡可转位铣刀系列中常有以HELI(源于”helix)开头标志的产品系列,并且“螺旋型刃口”和“螺旋型铣削”经常在技术信息中作为优势强调,为什么?
    早在1990年,伊斯卡就推出了HELIMILL--带有螺旋形刃口的可转位铣刀产品线。这种高效的切削刃口由一定形状的前角和后角沿螺旋线形成,从而沿着整个切削刃口形成了连续不变的正前角和后角,这种设计能够有效降低切削功率的消耗并确保切削更为平顺。HELIMILL开启了一种新的设计思路,现在这种可转位铣刀形式已经被广为认可,也确立了刀片造型的技术前沿。“HELI”反映了螺旋型切削刃作为可转位铣刀产品线先进技术的重要因素。
  • 伊斯卡可以提供铝合金加工的可转位铣刀吗?
    当然可以,伊斯卡已经开发出了全面且广泛的可转位铣刀系列专用于高效的铝合金加工。这些产品系列中的高品质铣刀具有轻量化刀体,独特的刀片锁紧方式,可调式刀夹结构,种类丰富的带各种圆角的抛光刀片,还有铝合金加工中非常流行的PCD刀片等特点,且大部分铣刀都带有内冷通道。伊斯卡的HELIAU产品系列能够用于高速铝加工(HSM),保证铝加工的高金属去除率(MRR)。
  • 当我们说到可转位铣刀时经常会用到“大正前“,这有什么含义?
    通常来说,这个术语和可转位铣刀的前角相关。先进的粉末冶金技术已经可以实现生产前角向着切削刃口方向极致倾斜的螺旋型切削刃刀片。基于上述原因刀片装在刀体上后可以在法向和轴向得到更大的正前角,“大正角”的定义就是强调这个特点。注意:这个定义反映了当前的技术状态,由于用硬质合金生产大前角的刀片并不消耗额外的资源,我们或许可以假设今天的“大正角”明天会被考虑为“正常”。
  • 硬质合金是可转位刀片的主要切削材料,伊斯卡提供了丰富的硬质合金牌号,在哪里可以找到关于这些牌号的性能的基础信息,推荐切削速度和应用范围?
    伊斯卡提供的电子样本和印刷样本参考指南中包含有这些信息,并且对材质结构(基材,涂层)进行了详细说明,应用范围和切削速度按照ISO标准材料分类推荐。也可通过联系伊斯卡区域销售代表获得详细信息和技术支持。
  • 可转位铣刀都有内冷通道吗?
    大部分近期推出的可转位铣刀都具有内冷通道且冷却液可通过刀体内部通道直达刀片。
  • 有一些套式面铣刀没有内冷通道,如果需要内冷如何修正铣刀?
    大部分情况下不需要修正。伊斯卡建议使用带可调整冷却喷嘴的的锁紧螺钉作为这个问题的简单解决方案。这种螺钉不但能够锁紧刀盘而且可以对切削区域提供高效冷却并改善排屑,基于铣削沉孔的深度,刀盘的尺寸或其他的应用需求,螺钉上的可调喷嘴允许对冷却供应位置进行简单调整。
  • 我如何才能确保使用正确的刀片螺钉锁紧扭矩保证刀片在刀体上的夹紧是可靠的?
    伊斯卡的可转位铣刀产品系列提供两种类型的扭矩扳手:可调扭矩扳手和固定扭矩扳手。第一种类型允许用户在可用范围内设定扭矩,第二种类型的扭矩经过预设是固定的。关于锁紧螺钉所需扭矩的信息可以在样本上,技术指南和手册上找到,并且现在这个信息已经被作为标记印刷到刀体上。
  • 如何才能更好地控制生产效率--在可接受的限制下改变进给或切深?
    应该注意这个问题并没有非常明确的答案并且需要依靠更多的因素进行分析。但是,通常来说在相同的金属去除率下,增大进给减少切深比参数反向调整(增大切深减少进给)对于切削来说更有利,因为前者可以获得更好的刀具寿命。
  • 我如何才能为我的应用找到更高效的可转位铣刀?
    如果你了解应用的参数,ITA(伊斯卡在线专家选刀系统)作为计算机辅助搜索引擎,将会是一个非常高效的工具。这是个免费软件甚至可以安装到你的智能手机上。如果您的问题涉及更广泛的内容并考虑选择更合适的产品家族,我们优先特别推荐您联系我们的产品工程师获得帮助。
  • 什么是车铣复合加工?
    车铣复合加工是一种工艺,铣刀能用于加工旋转的工件。这一加工方式融合了铣削技术及车削技术,具有许多优势。
  • 与传统车削相比,车铣复合加工有什么优势?
    在车削加工中,加工非连续性的表面具有断续切削的特点,并带来并不期望的冲击载荷、更差的被加工表面质量,以及刀具的提前磨损这类后果。而在车铣复合加工中,可以采用铣刀进行加工,而铣刀本来就用于断续切削,承受呈周期性变化的载荷。 当车削加工的材料为长切屑材料时,切屑的处理并不容易,而用户识别出具有正确而适合的断屑槽的刀具也并非易事。铣刀用于车铣复合机床,产生短切屑,能显著提高对切屑的控制。 在一些特殊的车削领域,如加工诸如曲轴、凸轮轴这类旋转件时,偏离中心轴线部分的加工将导致产生不平衡力,对切削性能产生不利影响。车铣复合加工中,工件低速旋转,能显著缩减甚至免于受到此不利影响。 在车削加工中,重型工件的旋转,切削速度的定义受到主驱动装置的特征限制。如果驱动不允许对大型工件实现所需旋转速度,那么切削速度将远远偏离最佳切削速度范围;其结果是车削加工性能不佳。车铣复合加工提供了有效克服以上困难的有效途径。
  • 我要怎样计算出适用于车铣复合加工的切削参数?
    计算方法展示在伊斯卡于2017年三月发布的“Welcome to ISCAR’s World”样本中,收集了很多文章。其电子版也能在伊斯卡官方网址展示的样本里找到。如有需要,请联系您所在地的本地伊斯卡工程师,他们将乐于提供帮助。
  • 薄化径向切屑和薄化轴向切屑有什么区别?
    切屑薄化涉及降低最大切屑厚度hmax 有两个主要的影响因素: 铣刀的几何形状,特别是主偏角 Kr小于90°(轴向薄化),有一个很好的例子就是大进给铣刀和用球头刀或者圆鼻刀进行三维型面的浅切深加工。 切宽ae的影响:如果切宽在侧铣和面铣中小于刀具半径,那么切屑厚度就小于每齿进给Fz,这个影响就是大家熟知的“径向薄化”。 理解切削薄化十分重要,保持所需的切屑厚度要求适当的增加每齿进给,这也是在编程中使用正确的每齿进给的关键因素。
  • 什么是平板轧铣刀?
    平板轧铣刀是一种圆柱柄平面铣刀,铣刀外圆部分沿螺旋线分布着刀齿。平板轧铣刀通常尺寸都比较大并且有一个中心孔用于安装到刀柄上,主要用于卧式铣床。平板轧铣刀的长度远大于其直径,这种铣刀被用于加工一个工件开敞的平面,该平面宽度小于刀具长度。平面轧铣刀在过去十分流行但今天已经很少见了。
  • What is “roll-in entering” a machined workpiece in milling?
    Roll-in entering (or, simply, rolling in) is a method of approaching a material in milling. In rolling in, a milling cutter enters the material by arc that causes a gradual growth of mechanical and thermal load on a cutting edge. This approach cut significantly contributes to machining stability and improves tool life. Rolling in is contrary to the traditional straight entering, when the load suddenly increases.
  • What are the advantages and disadvantages of clamping inserts in milling cutters by wedge?
    The main advantages of clamping indexable inserts in a milling cutter by wedge are quick and easy insert replacement or changing a worn cutting edge of the insert (the insert indexing). Clamping by wedge is more common for indexable face mills, especially large-sized. These mills usually work in tough conditions and often become hot. Machine operators prefer the wedge clamping design for such mills.
    However, the wedge, an additional part above the insert in the cutter structure, produces an obstacle for chip flow in the cutter chip gullet, which worsens chip evacuation and reduces cutter performance. This is a major disadvantage of wedge clamping. Intensive contact between the chips and the wedge results in the detrition wear of the latter and shortens its tool life.
  • 如何估计陶瓷刀片的刀具寿命?
    陶瓷刀具和整硬刀具有很大的区别,大多数情况下,这种刀具寿命结束的依据是毛刺的接受度而不是磨损大小。
  • What is a router?
    In machining, the term "router" has several meanings. It may refer to a rotating tool for hollowing out ("routing") wood and plastic materials. "Router" refers also to a 3-axis CNC machine for cutting soft materials, such as wood, using a rotating tool. In metalworking, a "router" usually means an endmill, intended for milling aluminum at high cutting and feed speeds.
  • Flute or chip gullet?
    In milling cutter terminology, both words designate a chip space or a chip pocket – the shaped area of a milling cutter body that is intended for the flow of chips that are formed as a result of cutting. This space must be sufficient to enable a free, unrestricted chip flow. The term "chip gullet" is generally used to specify the chip space of indexable milling cutters, whereas "flute" is mainly applied to a solid mill design, where it means a helical groove that ensures chip flow and produces a sharp cutting edge or a mill tooth by one of its edges.
  • Chip breaker or chip former?
    A chip breaker is an area of a tool rake face that is specially shaped for breaking or controlling (forming) the produced chip. The term "chip breaker" is commonly used in turning operations, where breaking a long chip is one of the key success factors. In milling, the term "chip former" is generally used, as milling is an interrupted, "chip breaking" cutting process that focuses on chip forming.
  • Which depth of cut percentage is recommended with respect to the insert cutting edge length?
    In process planning, depth of cut is defined depending on operation, machine tool characteristics, rigidity and other factors.
    ISCAR catalogs specify the maximum depth of cut for each insert. Maximum depth of cut refers to the maximal length of the insert cutting edge that can machine.
    This value must not be exceeded. In most cases, inserts are operated at cutting depths of no more than 2/3 of the specified maximum.
  • What is "chip load"?
    The term "chip load" is often used as a synonym for the term "feed per tooth". This term is more common for the North American market. However, the correct synonym for "chip load" is "chip thickness". In shop talk "chip load" relates usually even to maximum chip thickness. In North American countries the term "feed rate" is often used instead of the ISO definition "feed speed". While on this subject, manufacturers can refer to "feed speed" as "table feed".
    However, the correct synonym for "chip load" is "chip thickness". In shop talk "chip load" relates usually even to maximum chip thickness.
    The original term refers to a classical milling machine, from previous generations, where feed motion was created by movements of the machine table.
  • What is the difference between "wiper flat" and "wiper insert"?
    A wiper flat is a small minor edge on a regular indexable insert in milling cutters to improve the quality of a machined surface. It is often referred to as a “wiper.”
    A wiper insert is a specially designed insert were the wiper flat is significantly larger than for a standard insert. When mounted in a milling cutter, the wiper insert protrudes 0.05…0.07 mm axially relative to a regular inserts. A wiper insert "smooths down" the machined surface, noticeably improving surface finish.
  • What is "stepover" and what is "stepdown"?
    In multi-pass milling, "stepover" and "stepdown" refer to the distance between two adjacent passes. "Stepover" relates to this distance when, after finishing a pass, the milling cutter moves sideward and then performs the next pass. By contrast, if at the end of a pass the milling cutter moves downward to start the next part, the distance is called "stepdown". Sometimes "stepover" and "stepdown" are referred to as "sidestep" and "downstep" correspondingly although this is less common.
  • What is the difference between "gang milling" and "straddle milling"?
    Straddle milling is a type of gang milling.
    In gang milling, an assembled tool comprising two or more milling cutters mounted in the same arbor, machines several workpiece surfaces simultaneously. In straddle milling, two or more side-and-face milling cutters, mounted in one arbor, machine parallel planes of a workpiece. The planes are perpendicular to the arbor axis and feature an exact distance (distances) between them. To ensure the necessary accuracy of the distance (distances), the milling cutters are spaced apart with the use of bushings and spacers.
  • 什么是“on-edge” 刀片?
    这个术语有时候另一个名字叫立装刀片。当刀片装到刀体上,刀片立式放置,工作刃口位于最大横截面上。
  • 粗铣和精铣的区别是什么?
    粗铣 关注的是高金属去除率而精铣是为了确保获得所需精度的铣削表面。 精铣的特点是就是相比粗加工而言加工允差很小。
  • 可转位刀片的刃口处理有哪些类型?
    可转位刀片的刃口处理可能是锐边、倒圆和倒角,这些都是基本的刃口处理方式。 除以上几种,还有一些复合的刃口处理方式比如倒角+倒圆,双倒角,双倒角+倒圆。 倒圆也可被称作“钝化”。
  • 铣刀结构中楔块式刀片锁紧方式的优缺点是什么?
    楔块式锁紧是相对于螺钉锁紧刀片的替代选择,能够提供更稳定的刀片锁紧结构,刀片上无需螺钉孔。楔块式锁紧方式换刀片更简单迅速,并且在重载加工产生的高温下更稳定。 楔块式夹紧更适合于短切屑材料如铸铁等的加工。
  • 为确保刀片安装于刀体上的安全我何时应该更换刀片锁紧螺钉?
    在安装刀片于刀体上之前应该对锁紧螺钉进行目视检查,螺纹、头部以及扳手凹槽这些部分应该都在良好的状态,要特别注意如果这些部位有破损或者螺钉有变形,那么这个螺钉必须马上被更换掉。 在锁紧螺钉时,使用正确的锁紧扳手和锁紧扭矩。并且,更换螺钉或刀片转位时不要忘记了使用伊斯卡推荐的防卡润滑剂。按照上述规则可以有效延长螺钉的使用寿命。
  • How to determine when to replace an insert (change its cutting edge), on a solid tool or on an exchangeable head?
    The correct answers are: At the end of the tool life or upon reaching the wear limit. The life period of a tool or the wear limit for a cutting tool depends on various designs, operational and administrative factors.
    At the same time, during a machining operation, there are certain signs that can indicate the need to replace inserts, tools, or heads. -Noticeable increase of power consumption (spindle load)
    • Increased vibration and noise
    • Worsening of machining accuracy and a need for frequent additional tool dimensional adjusting
    • Reduced surface finish
    • Occurred burrs
    • A visual inspection of a cutting edge shows considerable flank wear, extensive edge chipping, cracks etc.
    For more detailed data on how to define a tool’s life in a specific case, we recommend contacting an ISCAR technical representative.
  • “三角形”和“凸三角形”刀片的主要区别是什么?
    准确的说,Triangular刀片和Trigon刀片都属于三角形,Triangular刀片的形状就是三角形,而Trigon刀片每边由两条凸起的等长线段形成的钝角形。 从几何角度来看,Trigon刀片的形状精确定义就是凸等位六边形,也可假定这个形状是一个截断的三角形。然而,这些叫法都不常用,相反Trigon这个术语在今天比较常见。 总而言之,Trigon这种形状的可转位刀片和凸等位六边形相关,也可称为凸三角形刀片。
  • 用于超精加工的TANGFIN可转位面铣刀有什么特点?
    TANGFIN铣刀是基于分层切削的理念设计的,刀片在刀盘的轴向和径向位置都是渐进式的分布。这种设计让刀片在径向和轴向的每一次切削中只切去很少的材料,能获得高质量的表面要归功于很好的刀片安装刚性和超长的修光刃口,最终表面纹路是由最突出的一个刀片进行修光形成。 此外,分层切削和长修光刃的设计以及单突出刃修光的设计还能获得令人印象深刻的精加工参数
  • 在伊斯卡的产品范围中有一些装有微型刀片的小直径铣刀产品家族,这些产品主要应用在哪些领域?有什么优势?
    这些产品的直径覆盖范围和一些传统的整硬铣刀重合。在一些浅切深的铣削加工中,只有很少的刃口长度被用到,这就使整硬铣刀在这些应用中的利用不够有效,尤其是粗加工工序。与之相反的是,装有微型刀片的铣刀不仅可以应用在这种场合,而且可转位刀片也可确保刀片的利用率更高。因此,和整硬刀具相比小直径转位铣刀能够提供合理的、高性价比的选择,特别在粗加工场合
  • 在铣削加工中半粗加工和半精加工的区别是什么?
    这两个说法可能是模糊的而且常常被认为是同义词。不过,在有些案例中当加工一个表面需要更多的工序,这些工序会被说明是粗铣,半粗铣,半精铣,精铣,超精铣或者简单的粗铣,半粗铣,半精铣,精铣。 顺便说一下,不仅仅是对铣削其他加工方式比如车削也会有这种类似的情况。
  • 什么是整体式筒夹?
    通常来说,整体式筒夹是指一种可以直接装到ER筒夹式刀柄的刀杆,和典型和弹簧筒夹相比,这种整体式筒夹能够提供更高的安装精度和更高的刚性。
  • 伊斯卡整体式刀夹有内冷通道吗?
    一般都有,比如伊斯卡变形金刚系列的整体式筒夹产品线。
  • 什么是并列铣abreast milling?
    并列铣是一种同时加工多种零件的方法,一排工件平行放置于刀具轴线方向上同时进行加工。
  • What is the pitch of a milling tool?
    The pitch is the distance between the two nearest-neighboring teeth of a milling tool measured between the same points of the teeth's cutting edges. The pitch shows the tooth density of a tool, in accordance with the milling tools which differ from the tools with a coarse, fine, and extra fine pitch. Parallel to coarse-fine-extra fine pitch rating, alternative grading such as: coarse-regular-fine, normal-close-extra close and others, exists. In addition, extra-fine pitch tools are also referred to as high-density cutters.
    仿形铣刀
  • “仿形铣削”、“曲面轮廓铣削”和“成型铣削”之间的区别是什么?
    总的来说,它们的含义相同,都是对三维曲面进行铣削。机加工车间中通常简单地将这种加工叫做仿形加工。
  • 哪些工业行业会有大量的仿形铣削加工?
    首先是模具工业,其次是航空航天工业,但是几乎所有的工业细分领域都会不同程度地涉及到仿形铣。
  • 哪一类刀具最常应用于仿形铣?
    在3D曲面的预成型粗铣时,加工工艺会选用不同的刀具甚至采用90°方肩铣刀。对于要求高效率的粗加工来说,选用快进给铣刀*是非常有效的。但是,大部分仿形铣需要球头铣刀或大圆角铣刀,因为它们能保证每个方向上能包络出合适的轮廓。
  • 带分屑槽刀片是否应用于伊斯卡的仿形铣削中?
    是的,从可转位圆刀片的MILLSHRED系列开始,伊斯卡带锯齿刃边的刀片开始应用于铣削。
  • 仿形铣的有效切削直径如何定义?
    在仿形铣中,由于刀具的外形不是直线形,切削直径与切削深度函数相关,铣削时切削区域不同,情况也不一样。有效直径就是最大的实际参与切削的刀具直径。在计算设定切削参数时,有效直径是非常重要的数据,因为实际切削速度与有效直径相关,而与主轴速度相关是刀具的名义直径。
  • 伊斯卡提供哪些种类的仿形铣刀?
    伊斯卡仿形铣产品系列包含以下种类的快进给铣刀*,圆角铣刀和球头铣刀: 可转位刀片式铣刀 整体硬质合金铣刀 可换头式整硬铣刀-变形金刚系列
  • 什么是清根铣削restmilling?
    生产中铣削应用更倾向于耐用、高刚性刀具,以提高金属去除率。在一些工况下由于刀具形状和尺寸的限制,其无法在某些轮廓区域进行切削。例如,模具型腔中的转角部位。这些未加工到区域的就需要用到清根铣削这种工艺方法:使用较小直径刀具,对这些前序无法去余量的部分进行加工。
  • Does ISCAR recommend the use of “plungers” for profile milling?
    Yes, in cases of large overhang we recommend the use of cutters/plungers on the Z axis, as this will result in a more productive milling operation with less vibration in profiling/roughing. The depth of cut for plungers with overhang is higher than ap for conventional systems, obtaining a higher metal removal rate. ISCAR offers a variety of plungers and, to achieve important lengths, we recommend use of the ITS modular system.
  • What is ISCAR's "rule of 12" for ball nose cutters?
    "The rule of 12" is a rule of thumb that may be useful for quick estimation of the relation between a depth of cut and a width of cut (a stepover) when milling ISO P materials (soft and pre-hardened steel, ferritic and martensitic stainless steel) by ball nose cutters. In accordance with the rule, if a depth of cut is the half of a cutter diameter (D/2), a recommended width of cut (a stepover) should be no more than D/6; for the depth of cut D/3 the maximal width of cut should be D/4 etc.
    It is not difficult to see that 2×6=3×4=12.
  • In face milling, a recommended width of cut is often given as a ratio to a tool diameter. When using a mill with round inserts, which tool diameter should I consider?
    The correct way to decide is by calculating the width of cut with the effective diameter of the mill with round inserts – the largest of the tool diameters that’s involved in cutting.
    This diameter is a function of the depth of cut, or by using the cutting diameter of a face mill for such a calculation. In accordance with standard ISO 6462, the cutting diameter is defined by the point that is produced by the intersection of the major cutting edge and the machined plane. This is the smallest tool diameter involved in cutting, while the cutting diameter is one of the main milling dimensions. This is also specified in the ISCAR catalog.
    Here are some rules for quick estimating the cutting diameter:
    If a face mill carries an even number of round inserts, the cutting diameter may be considered accurate enough as the distance between the centers of two opposite inserts. In other words, it is the mill’s maximum diameter minus the insert diameter.
    If the cutter has an uneven number of inserts, the cutting diameter is approximately equal to the doubled distance from the mill axis to an insert center.
    Using the maximum mill diameter as a base for calculating the width of cut is acceptable only when the depth of cut is close to the insert radius. In any other case, this calculation may cause intensive insert wear.
  • What is a form milling cutter?
    A form milling cutter is a general name for milling cutters that are intended for generating curve-based (complex) surfaces.
    整体硬质合金立铣刀
  • 伊斯卡能提供加工所有工程材料种类的整体硬质合金立铣刀吗?
    伊斯卡的SOLIDMILL产品系列包含众多整硬立铣刀系列,对应不同工程材料的加工:钢、不锈钢、铸铁等等。此产品系列有着丰富的刀具产品可完成ISO标准的全部材料组的加工:P,M,K,N,S和H。
  • 伊斯卡的整体硬质合金铣刀产品系列提供哪些种类的标准产品?
    伊斯卡标准整体硬质合金立铣刀产品包括:90°立铣刀,球头铣刀,大进给铣刀,倒角铣刀和去毛刺铣刀。伊斯卡还有特殊设计的应用于摆线铣削方式的高效率铣刀。
  • 摆线铣削方式有什么优势?
    通常,摆线铣削方式应用于槽铣和型腔铣加工。摆线铣削时,高速旋转的铣刀沿着圆弧线移动,切削掉一层薄而宽的工件材料。切除完这一层材料后,铣刀沿着工件纵深方向继续重复切削。这种方法确保了加工中刀具接触面积一致,切屑厚度稳定均匀。刀具承受稳定的切削负载,使刀具磨损均匀寿命稳定。切屑厚度薄可降低对刀具的热冲击,使得能以更多的刀齿数来设计。这种铣削方式有很高的金属去除率,能极大降低加工功耗,延长刀具使用寿命。
  • What is a "trochoid"?
    "Trochoid", or "trochoidal curve", is a general name for a curve described by a fixed point on a circle as it rolls along a straight line or curves without slipping.
  • CHATTERFREE防振降噪立铣刀的几何结构奥秘是什么?
    CHATTERFREE防振降噪立铣刀是伊斯卡多个硬质合金铣刀系列中的一个系列。CHATTERFREE的主要特征是刀齿的不等分齿距和不等螺旋角设计。这种设计理念可以大大减少甚至消除切削时的振动,从而显著提高性能和刀具寿命。
  • What is a variable helix?
    The term "variable helix" refers to the helix angle in vibration-free designs of solid carbide endmills (SCEM), as are found in ISCAR CHATTERFREE products. A typical SCEM features helical teeth and the helix angle determines the cutting edge inclination of a tooth. In traditionally designed endmills, the helix angle is the same for all flutes, but it varies in vibration-free configurations.
    The term “variable helix” is commonly understood to represent two design features: 1) Combining flutes with unequal helix angles where the angles are constant along every flute.
    2) Helix angle varies along the flute.
    However, the term “variable helix” is correct only in relation to design feature 2 and the term “different helix” should be used to specify design feature 1.
  • 为什么FINISHERED立铣刀被称为“二合一”铣刀?
    FINISHERD立铣刀为四齿铣刀,其中两齿为波形刃、两齿为螺旋刃。这种设计将两种铣刀的特征集合到了一把铣刀中:粗铣(带分屑槽的波形刃)和精铣(直线连续刃),所以称为“二合一”。其在粗加工的切削参数下,实现半精铣甚至精铣的性能。这样一把铣刀可以替代两把铣刀(粗铣刀和精铣刀),不仅能缩短切削时间和功耗,而且能提高生产效率。
  • 伊斯卡提供整体硬质合金立铣刀的重磨技术指导吗?
    是的。伊斯卡所有相关样本,技术手册及单册都有关于整硬立铣刀的重磨指导,伊斯卡当地的工程师们也能就此提供服务指导。
  • 按长度区分系列指什么?
    同一类型、同一直径的整体硬质合金铣刀在一个系列中的总长度往往不同。依据长度来分,有短、中、长系列,也可有超短或超长等附加系列。通用的原则是,短型立铣刀具有更好的强度和刚性,而加长型立铣刀可以应用于大悬伸的工况。
  • 什么是slot drill钻铣刀?
    slot drill钻铣刀可以垂直向下钻削,钻铣刀至少有一个过中心的端刃通常用于键槽的加工。钻铣刀通常是两刃铣刀,但也有三刃及刃铣刀。
  • 伊斯卡整体硬质合金球头铣刀有两齿铣刀和四齿铣刀。怎样正确地选用合适齿数的立铣刀?
    通用的四齿整体硬质合金球头立铣刀为各种应用提供了通用且高刚性的产品方案,特别是半精和精加工。两齿铣刀具有更大的容屑槽空间,使其更适合于粗加工,确保排屑的流畅。两齿铣刀齿数少,基于齿数的累计误差小,同样也适用于精加工。当切深较浅时,计算每齿进给只考虑2个有效齿;因为多刃设计的优势被削弱了。
  • 伊斯卡整体硬质合金立铣刀产品系列有微小径立铣刀吗?
    答案取决于定义,什么是微小型。很多相关的形容词并没有区别。当然,尽管缺乏严格的,被普遍接纳的定义,大家也认为与刀具直径相关。伊斯卡整体硬质合金立铣刀包含切削刃直径为0.1 mm的铣刀。例如用于加工高硬材料的球头铣刀,最小切削刃直径为0.1mm。
  • 伊斯卡有整体陶瓷立铣刀吗?它们最高效的应用场合是什么?
    伊斯卡产品包含整体陶瓷铣刀系列。它们主要应用于加工高温合金、耐热不锈钢、铸铁和石墨材料。
  • 伊斯卡的整体硬质合金铣刀产品系列提供哪些种类的标准产品?
    伊斯卡标准整体硬质合金立铣刀产品包括:90°立铣刀,球头铣刀,大进给铣刀,倒角铣刀和去毛刺铣刀。伊斯卡还有特殊设计的应用于摆线铣削方式的高效率铣刀。
  • 摆线铣削方式有什么优势?
    通常,摆线铣削方式应用于槽铣和型腔铣加工。摆线铣削时,高速旋转的铣刀沿着圆弧线移动,切削掉一层薄而宽的工件材料。切除完这一层材料后,铣刀沿着工件纵深方向继续重复切削。这种方法确保了加工中刀具接触面积一致,切屑厚度稳定均匀。刀具承受稳定的切削负载,使刀具磨损均匀寿命稳定。切屑厚度薄可降低对刀具的热冲击,使得能以更多的刀齿数来设计。这种铣削方式有很高的金属去除率,能极大降低加工功耗,延长刀具使用寿命。
    变形金刚立铣刀
  • 如何将刀头安装到刀杆中?
    刀头连接部位有两部分:一是短锥面,一是非切削尾端,其作用是在刀杆中定位。锥面确保了高的同心度和面接触。螺纹保证连接刚性。因此其尾端有两部分:锥面和螺纹面。 安装时,首先用手转动刀头旋入,然后使用扳手旋紧。刀头有扳手槽的使用扳手旋紧。
  • 面接触有什么优势?
    首先,面接触能增加刀杆和刀头组合的整体刚性,提高其承受铣削过程中冲击负载的能力。这使得切削加工过程稳定,降低加工振动,并降低功耗。 其次,面接触确保了刀头与刀杆的高重复定位精度。因此更换新的刀头后无需对刀,且操作人员无需将刀杆从机床主轴上取下也可完成刀头的更换。
  • 什么是“初始间隙”?
    安装刀头时,首先用手旋转刀头,刀头会止步于刀头与刀杆接触面还有一个很小间隙的位置点处。之后,需使用扳手才能进一步旋紧刀头。进一步旋紧刀头使刀头与刀杆接触面发生一定的弹性变形。上述刀头与刀杆之间的间隙即为“初始间隙”,这是MULTI-MASTER螺纹连接的一个重要特征,其间隙大小为零点几毫米,具体大小取决于螺纹尺寸大小。
  • 为什么MULTI-MASTER螺纹采用特殊的螺纹牙型?
    MULTI-MASTER刀头由硬质合金制成。这种材料硬度高、耐热性佳,但是对比高速钢(HSS),其抗冲击强度(韧性)低。因此,设计以碳化钨材料为主的硬质合金螺纹时,需解决的主要问题是减小应力集中。 此外,MULTI-MASTER刀头连接尺寸相对较小,其连接螺纹的名义直径通常为4-15mm。既需要满足连接强度的需要,却又受制于直径尺寸对螺纹牙型高度的限制。 这些矛盾使得采用标准螺纹强度不够,就需要采用特殊的螺纹牙型实现连接。这就是为什么伊斯卡设计特殊的“T型螺纹”的原因。
  • 伊斯卡的MULTI-MASTER可换刀头有哪些种类?
    各种立铣刀头 - 90°,45°,60°等 各种成型轮廓铣刀,球头铣刀,圆角铣刀,内凹圆角铣刀和其它成型铣刀头 大进给铣刀头 槽铣刀刀头用于铣削槽、O型环圈槽、T型槽等 螺纹铣刀刀头 中心点钻刀头 雕刻刀刀头 提供各种齿数、螺旋角、精度的铣刀头,以及对应加工不同工件材料的不同切削几何参数系列。
  • 什么是经济型可换式铣刀头?
    伊斯卡提供两类MULTI-MASTER可换头立铣刀。 第一种MULTI-MASTER可换式立铣刀头与伊斯卡整体硬质合金标准立铣刀相同,区别就是总长和切削刃长有所不同。这种立铣刀的主要优势是可选范围大(几乎和标准整硬立铣刀生产线相同)。在精加工和铣削高硬度材料时,密齿铣刀刚性更好、生产率更高。第一种可换式铣刀头是采用梯度硬质合金棒料磨削而成。 第二种是MULTI-MASTER经济型可换式立铣刀头,它通过压制烧结预成型,毛坯余量更小。后续磨削定型其刃口形状及精度。这种类型的刀头刀齿更强韧,对比第一种类型的可换式铣刀头,它可以采用更大的每齿进给。压制技术可以生产出复杂形状。经济型可换式铣刀头只有两个齿。
  • 为什么MULTI-MASTER专用扳手带两个开口?
    由于可换式铣刀头的设计特点,其中一个开口,类似于普通工程机械扳手,适用于第一种类型的MULTI-MASTER可换头铣刀刀头(见上文)和圆柱刀头毛坯。另一个开口专门为经济型可换刀头设计。
  • MULTI-MASTER系列是否包含孔加工产品?
    是的,该系列有带60°, 80°, 90°, 100°, 120°和145主偏角的刀头,不仅用于倒角,还可以作为点钻和锪沉头孔使用。作为补充,还提供中心钻刀头。
  • 硬质合金中心钻真的是合理的解决方案产品吗?市场上有着品种丰富的高速钢制成的低成本双头中心钻和锪沉头孔刀具。
    与高速钢的中心钻、加工沉头孔的刀具相比,整体硬质合金中心钻寿命明显更长,刀头可以在更高的切削参数下工作,有着极高的生产效率。当然,我们建议客户综合考虑当前成本和其它因素,再做最后的决定。
  • 刀头的精度怎么样?
    名义直径标准精度的铣刀的精度公差:棒料毛坯磨制的MULTI-MASTER可换式立铣刀头公差为e8,经济型立铣刀头公差为h9。精加工成型铣刀公差为h7,铝合金专用铣刀的公差为h6。倒角铣刀、点钻、沉头孔钻的刀刃直径公差为h10。
  • MULTI-MASTER可换头铣刀的重复定位精度如何?
    如问题2的答案所述,面接触的优点之一就是高重复定位精度,确保了刀头安装到刀杆上的公差很小。大部分铣刀刀头安装后精度为±0.01mm。
  • 伊斯卡的MULTI-MASTER可换头铣刀是否可铣削高硬钢材料?
    是的。这类可换式铣刀头由高韧性高耐磨性的亚细晶粒硬质合金制成,具有很高的精度等级。
  • 铣刀刀杆主要有哪些类型,它们应用于哪些工况?
    铣刀刀杆分几种不同的类型:圆柱刀杆和带锥颈刀杆,锥颈可以是圆柱形或圆锥形。 圆柱柄刀杆(直柄)和带直颈的刀杆在MULTI-MASERT系列中被定义为A型刀杆,这是通用于各种加工应用的刀杆。还有一个夹持力加强款,用于键槽铣削和大进给铣削(HFM)。它的特点是刀杆后端带平面,适用于Weldon刀柄的侧固式夹紧。 B型刀杆为带短锥颈的加强型刀杆,颈部圆锥半锥角为5°。它的特点是刀杆刚性好,适用于重载铣削。 对于长悬伸加工,带长锥颈的D型刀杆是一个很好的解决方案。其颈部半锥角为1°,主要用于深槽,深型腔,深陡峭壁的铣削等。这种刀杆不能用于重载加工。 对于短悬伸应用,MULTI-MASETER产品系列提供了卡簧接柄。它们能被直接安装到主轴刀柄上。直接的安装与连接提高了刚性和精度,减小了刀具相对主轴的悬伸。 MULIT-MASTER产品系列还提供钢质圆柱柄长型刀杆(最短10倍径长度的刀杆)。可通过后续的加工工序,生产定制刀杆,甚至由客户自己加工成型。实际上它就是一个一端带内T型螺纹孔的刀杆毛坯。为了便于后续的生产改制(车削或磨削),另一端面带有中心孔。 MULTI-MASTER产品系列还包含各种其它连接方式,用于与伊斯卡体系的其它模块化产品组合(如:FLEXFIT)。
  • 刀杆有哪些材料制成?怎么选择不同材料的刀杆。
    刀杆材料有以下几种:钢、碳化钨、重金属(钨含量超过90%)。 就功能而言,钢质刀杆最通用。由于碳化钨硬度高,所以碳化钨刀杆主要用于半精加工及精加工,大悬伸加工和细杆内环槽加工。因为重金属的减振性能,对于刚性差的工况,使用重金属刀杆可以获得更好的加工效果。但是重型加工不建议使用重金属刀柄。
  • MULTI-MASTER立铣刀刀杆是否能带内冷通道?
    是的,伊斯卡提供带内冷通道的刀杆。
  • MULTI-MASTER刀杆可适用于热缩夹头吗?
    硬质合金刀杆或重金属刀杆可适用于热缩夹头。但是对于钢质刀杆,不建议用于热缩夹头。
  • 将刀头安装到刀杆上时,T型螺纹需要加润滑油吗?
    不要。不要在MULTI-MUSTER刀头的T型螺纹上涂润滑油。
  • Are the MULTI-MASTER connection design and thread compatible with other tool brands?
    No. ISCAR’s unique design is patented and other systems that appeared later are not compatible.
  • 伊斯卡是否向客户提供MULT-MASTER可换式刀头半成品供客户生产刀具?
    MULTI-MASTER产品线包含未涂层的半成品刀头,用于客户自行磨削制造客户所需成品刀具。半成品刀头带有MULTI-MASTER的T型螺纹连接部分,及供客户自行磨削的圆柱毛坯部分。
  • Does ISCAR provide a key with adjustable tightening torque for MULTI-MASTER heads?
    Yes. The MULTI-MASTER product range includes an assembled key, comprising an adjustable torque handle with a set of interchangeable wrenches and TORX-tipped bits, designed for secure and accurate tightening of MULTI-MASTER heads. This key is an optional product and should be ordered separately.
  • What are the applications for ISCAR's lens- and oval-shape solid carbide endmills and MULTI-MASTER exchangeable heads?
    The lens- and oval-shape solid carbide endmills and MULTI-MASTER exchangeable heads are designed for 5-axis semi-finish and finish milling complex surfaces, especially in aerospace, medical and die & mold industries.
  • MULTI-MASTER可换刀头式立铣刀最高允许的转速是多少?
    MULTI-MASTER铣刀由刀杆和可换式铣刀头组成。所有刀杆的最高转速(RPM)可在伊斯卡产品样本和用户指南中查询。当一个铣刀刀头安装到刀杆上以后,可以通过刀杆最高转速除以刀头齿数估算出铣刀的最高转速。 除了最高转速的限制以外,刀具组合(铣刀头、刀杆、刀柄)必须做好动平衡。
  • 哪种MULTI-MASTER铣刀头属于长刃范畴?
    通常,铣刀头的刃口长度至少超过其刃径的一半。
  • MULTI-MASTER 系列MM HCD铣刀头带有多种不同的顶角(钻尖角),用于倒角、锪沉头孔、点钻。这多种顶角变化的原因是什么?
    在MULTI-MASTER标准产品系列中,MM HCD可换头铣刀的顶角包含有60°,80°,90°,100°和120°。这多种顶角的设定是由于工件倒角和沉头孔各种标准有关。例如,公制沉头螺钉是90°沉头孔,美国标准是80°,航空行业标准是100°。常规的倒角通常是45°倒角,但是30°和60°倒角也比较常见。为满足这些多样性的需求,所以设计提供了这些不同顶角的铣刀。
  • 伊斯卡的MULTI-MASTER可换平底钻头的主要应用领域是什么?
    这些可换头产品不仅限于加工浅的平底孔(孔深可达1.2倍刃径)。MULTI-MASTER可换头平底钻可在斜面、曲面上高效钻孔,直接在实体材料上钻孔而无需中心钻或预钻孔,还能用于半孔,扩孔,加工孔口平面。
  • Is it necessary to reduce the feed rate when drilling slanted surfaces with the MULTI-MASTER exchangeable flat bottom drilling head?
    Yes. When drilling slanted surfaces, the feed rate should be adjusted according to the angle of a surface inclination as recommended in the corresponding ISCAR guides. It can be roughly estimated that the feed reduction is 30-50% of a common value, depending on the angle of inclination.
  • 伊斯卡的MULTI-MASTER产品是否能直接安装到机床主轴上使用?
    是的,伊斯卡的MULTI-MASTER产品中含有直接与机床主轴内锥面相连接的刀柄。例如:7:24锥柄(DIN 69871),HSK 锥柄(DIN 69893),棱面锥柄(ISO 26623-1)等。
    大进给铣刀
  • For which type of fast feed milling cutters does ISCAR manufacture tools?
    ISCAR’s line of fast feed milling cutters comprises tools carrying indexable inserts, Multi-Master tools and solid carbide end mills.
  • Which milling operation is more effective for applying FF milling cutters?
    The most effective applications for FF milling cutters are rough milling planes, pockets and cavities.
  • What is the meaning of the “Triple F” or "FFF" that is often mentioned in ISCAR technical editions and presentations?
    "FFF" refers to fast feed face milling or fast feed facing. Rough milling planes is one of most the efficient and widespread applications for FF cutters. The operation usually relates to face milling, so the FFF acronym refers usually to fast feed face milling. FFF can also mean fast feed facing, as milling plane operations are often known as facing.
  • Fast feed milling is considered as a high-efficiency metal removal technique when machined workpieces are made from steel or cast iron. Can FF milling cutters be applied to machining difficult-to-cut materials like titanium or high temperature alloys?
    FF milling cutters may be used in machining difficult-to-cut materials. The cutting geometry in this case differs from the geometry of general-duty FF milling tools that are intended for steel and cast iron. In addition, feed per tooth is significantly smaller compared to machining steel and cast iron; however it is much higher than the feed values that are recommended for traditional methods.
  • What are MF milling tools?
    MF means “moderate feed”: moderate comparing with “fast” in FF milling but faster than the standard in traditional milling. The MF method is intended for increasing productivity when using slow high-power machines, milling heavy workpieces, etc.
  • LOGIQ发布了新的可转位刀片的大进给铣刀系列,其直径范围与传统的整体硬质合金铣刀重合。这些新的铣刀能否成功替代同类整体硬质合金立铣刀?
    是的。刀具的设计确保了铣刀的多齿结构。我们以NAN3FEED系列铣刀为例,它们直径为8mm和10mm(0.315”和0.394”英寸),带2齿或3齿。可转位铣刀中只有可转位刀片(占铣刀的很小一部分)是硬质合金材料。这就意味着可转位铣刀相对于整体硬质合金铣刀消耗的昂贵的硬质合金材料少很多。NAN3FEED刀片带3个切削刃口,保证其有很高的经济性。由于刀片尺寸非常小,需要用专用的带磁性的工具将其置入刀体定位槽内。其经济性和易于操作性使其相对于整硬铣刀有很大的优势。
  • Are fast feed cutters recommended for milling operations in turning or multi-task machines?
    Yes. In general, these are small to medium diameter cutters and the turning operation is fast. The use of fast feed cutters results in improving the milling operation, reducing the machining time and minimizing damages to the machine head. MULTI-MASTER is an excellent option for turn-milling machines.
  • 什么是大进给铣刀的编程半径?
    在CNC编程中,大进给铣刀通常被设定为带刀尖圆角半径的90°方肩铣刀。这个假想的“编程半径”是一个非常重要刀具参数,因为它定义了转角位置的最大厚度,以及由此包络生成的实际与理论轮廓的偏差。
  • 伊斯卡提供种类繁多的大进给铣刀。如何针对具体的应用选择最佳的铣刀产品?
    关于伊斯卡大进给铣刀的基本产品信息和选用建议,请参见大进给铣刀快速选择指南,有电子版(伊斯卡官网),也有印刷版的指南。如果问题涉及有已知的信息及一些特殊的应用,可以在线上ITA(伊斯卡在线专家选刀系统)应用程序中找到最佳方案。
    High Speed Machining (HSM)
  • 术语“高速加工”的含义?
    通常高速加工强调的是“具有高主轴转速和高进给速度高效的现代加工方法”,高速加工可指: 高切削速度加工 高主轴转速加工 高进给速度加工 这三种速度是相关联的。提高主轴转速会相应提高进给速度;同样更高的切削速度意味着更高的主轴转速。由于主轴转速与切削速度和刀具直径成正比,所以对于不同直径的刀具需要调整主轴转速以确保切削速度相同。多个因素影响切削速度,其中工件材料和刀具材料是最重要的因素。不同的刀具材料,对于相同的工件材料推荐的切削速度相差会很大,比如硬质合金刀具和陶瓷刀具加工镍基高温合金材料时切削速度就不一样。同时,加工铝合金材料时,其正常的切削速度明显高于加工高温合金的切削速度。 术语“高速加工”通常与高速铣削相关,这是铣削方法的一种,其特点是浅切深、轻切削、高主轴转速相结合。
  • 高速加工的切削速度是否都非常高?
    不完全是。让我们看一个例子。加入我们使用直径为4mm的球头铣刀,切深0.1mm进行铣削。这种情况下铣刀有效直径为1.25mm,如果要求的切削速度为60m/min,铣刀转速应该为15280rpm。如果切削速度为100m/min,铣刀转速应该为25465rpm! 高速加工并不相应意味着高切削速度加工。
  • 用于高速加工的机床必须配备高速主轴,是这样的吗?
    是的,但不仅限于此。由于转速和进给速度相互关联,机床驱动也需要具有高速进给性能。此外,机床必须适配高速驱动控制系统、高刚性和其它一些设计特征,以使其适合高速加工。
  • 高速加工适用于加工淬硬钢吗?
    是的。在加工淬硬钢(难加工材料)时,会产生大量的加工热和强烈的振动。这是导致刀具寿命低、产品精度降低、稳定性差的根本原因。这使得加工作业不可预测。而采用浅切深的高速切削所产生的切削力和热量会降低很多,所以可以解决上述问题。
  • 为什么高速加工越来越多的用于粗加工工序中?
    由于技术的进步,尤其是在半成品的生产中,特别强调高速加工。通过精密铸造、金属注塑成型和3D打印等方式实现了工件毛坯形状已经非常近净零件的最终形状。所以,通过传统方式去除大量余量材料的需求减少了。由于高速加工的特点就是去除余量小,所以它提供了一种精准生产工件的方式。
  • 摆线铣削与高速加工的关系?
    摆线铣削时,高速旋转的铣刀沿着圆弧线摆动,切除一层薄而宽的工件材料。这种铣削方式的特点是刀具高转速和小切宽(或径向切深),其可以被视为一种高速加工技术。
  • 伊斯卡是否提供有铣刀最高转速的信息?
    是的。这些信息可以在样本、用户指南、技术文件中找到。通常,可转位铣刀允许的最高转速会直接刻印在刀体上。
  • 高速加工中刀具和刀柄系统是否需要做动平衡?
    答案是肯定的。通常,刀具安装在刀柄上,刀柄安装在高速机床的主轴中。 在高速加工中,刀具与刀柄的动态特性是一体的,所以必须特别关注刀具与刀柄的装配情况。
  • 什么是剥铣(peel milling)?
    通常,剥铣是指基于大的切深和小的径向吃刀的一种铣削方式。摆线铣削可以视为剥铣的一种形式,剥铣和摆线铣通常比较类似。
    槽铣
  • Which tools are used for milling slots?
    Generally speaking, milling tools of different types – side milling cutters, endmills, extended flite (long-edge) milling cutters and even face mills – are suitable for milling slots and grooves. However, only the side milling cutters with teeth on face and periphery are designed especially for machining slots and grooves, while the others are intended for various milling operations. ISCAR’s line of slot milling tools comprises the side milling cutters.
  • What is the difference between “slot” and “groove”?
    The words “slot” and “groove” are often synonymous. But if “slot” usually relates to a narrow, comparatively long, mainly longitudinal opening that is usually open-ended (at least from one side); “groove”, as a rule, means a circular (called “undercut”) or helical channel. It is been said that “a slot is an open-ended groove”.
  • Slot milling tools are often referenced as slotting tools. Is this correct?
    The word “slotting”, commonly known as “slot milling”, is widespread in shop talk but the two actions are not identical or interchangeable. Slotting refers specifically to a stage in planning or shaping – a machining process where a single-point cutting tool moves linearly and piston wise, and a workpiece is fixed or moves only linearly concurrent with the tool.
  • Why are slot milling cutters called side and face milling cutters?
    A slot milling cutter has teeth on its face and periphery, and features a cutting face and sides for the simultaneous machining of three surfaces: the bottom and the two sidewalls of a slot.
  • What are the main types of slot milling cutters?
    The slot milling cutters differ in their adaptation (mounting methods). They have either arbor hole or shank-type configurations or, alternatively, interchangeable cutting heads for modularly assembled tools.
  • What is ISCAR’s program for slot milling cutters?
    ISCAR is engaged in developing slot milling cutters in various fields:
    - Cutters carrying indexable inserts
    - Assembled MULTI-MASTER slot milling tools with replaceable heads
    - Assembled T-SLOT milling cutters with replaceable solid carbide cutting heads
  • Which slot is defined as narrow?
    The term “narrow slot” generally defines a deep slot of small width. A more rigorous but empirical rule considers a “narrow slot” to be the slot with a width less than 5 mm and a depth of at least 2.5 times the width.
  • What type of milling does ISCAR recommend for these types of cutters?
    Down milling is normally recommended, where chip thickness is formed from thick to thin.
  • What is the difference between indexable slotting cutters and slitting cutters?
    Originally, slotting cutters were intended for milling slots and grooves while slitting cutters were used for slitting or cutting-off. Each type of cutters featured different accuracy requirements, and slitting cutters were less precise. However, technological progress has significantly leveled out differences between slotting and slitting cutters in indexable milling.
  • 为什么术语“轴向切削深度”和“径向切削深度”在槽铣加工种非常常用?
    在铣削中,切削深度通常沿刀具轴向测量,切削宽度沿刀具径向测量。因此切削深度和切削宽度可以相应的称为“轴向切削深度”和“径向切削深度”。 然而盘铣刀加工中,这种普遍接受的称谓会导致概念的混淆。轴向深度等于刀齿的宽度,也定义了槽铣的宽度。在这种情况下,切削径向深度对应了槽深。 因此,在盘铣刀应用中,使用术语“轴向切削深度”和“径向切削深度”可有效防止可能出现的误解。
  • 伊斯卡SD-SP整硬槽铣刀刀头能装到MULTI-MASTER刀杆上吗?
    不行!可换式SD-SP槽铣刀头不能直接安装至MULTI-MASTER刀杆上。但是,使用一端为T型螺纹接口、一端为SD CAB花键接口的转换头,就可以实现连接安装。
    玉米铣刀
  • Why “extended flute” cutters?
    The cutting blade of an extended flute cutter consists of a set of indexable inserts that are placed gradually with a mutual offset of one another. Compared to an ordinary indexable mill whose length of cut is limited by the cutting edge of its insert, the cutting length of the extended flute cutter is significantly larger – it is “extended” due to the set of inserts.
  • What are the other technical terms for extended flute cutters?
    Extended flute cutters are also referred to as long-edge cutters and porcupine cutters (known as “porkies” in shop talk).
  • What are the main applications for extended flute cutters?
    Extended flute cutters are designed for high-performance rough milling: milling deep shoulders (known as “deep shouldering” in shoptalk), deep pockets and cavities (“pocketing”), and wide edges (“edging”).
  • Can extended flute cutters be applied to semi-finish operations?
    Yes. There are solutions that ensure this type of machining. For example, ISCAR HELITANG FIN LNK cutters carrying tangentially clamped peripherally ground inserts were designed especially for semi-finish milling.
  • Why do many types of indexable inserts for extended flute cutters feature a chip splitting design?
    Extended flute cutters work in heavy-load conditions. The following factors considerably improve cutter performance, which is why a chip splitting geometry is often integrated into the extended flute cutters’ design:
    • Chip splitting results in a wide chip being divided into small segments, which improves chip evacuation and chip handling.
    • The action of chip splitting strengthens vibration dampening of a cutter.
    • In many cases, chip splitting reduces cutting forces and power consumption, and leads to less heat generation during milling.
    • The small segments have fewer tendencies to be re-cut; this greatly improves rough milling of deep cavities and increases tool life.
  • What are the design configurations of ISCAR’s extended flute cutters?
    The ISCAR standard line of extended flute cutters comprises various designs:
    • Shell mills
    • Mills with cylindrical shanks (smooth or with flats, known as “Weldon-type”)
    • Mills with tapered shanks (7:24, HSK)
    • CAMFIX polygonal taper shank and replaceable cutting heads with a FLEXFIT connection
  • Can ISCAR’s extended flute cutters incorporate internal coolant supply channels?
    Most of ISCAR’s extended flute cutters have an internal channel for coolant supply through the body of the cutter.
  • Does ISCAR recommend extended flute cutters for milling titanium?
    Yes. Milling titanium usually involves removing considerable machining stock. It is a process with a significant buy-to-fly ratio and a large amount of metal needs to be removed. Extended flute cutters possess significant performance advantages in this area and their use can dramatically cut cycle time.
  • Why are some extended flute cutters defined as ‘fully effective’?
    The design of the cutters known as ‘fully effective’ features the inserts interlinked and overlapping, resulting in a continuous flute. Many other cutters are “half effective”, where the inserts are placed alternately and 2 flutes are necessary to cover the area that the fully effective cutters can cover with only one flute.
    铣齿轮及铣花键
  • 伊斯卡可以提供齿轮或者花键铣刀吗?
    伊斯卡的现有产品中,已经开发出三种铣刀可以铣削渐开线直齿和渐开线花键: 装夹可转位刀片的铣刀 通过T-SLOT 接口装夹可换式铣刀头的铣刀 更换可换式铣刀头的变形金刚立铣刀
  • 伊斯卡铣刀是用哪一种齿形成型方式加工的?
    成型铣削和强力刮齿
  • 当我们讨论齿形轮廓的成型方式时,“成型铣削”的意思是什么?
    成型铣削是一种生成齿形轮廓的方法。在成型铣中,铣刀的工作形状就像两齿之间的空隙形状,每一个齿都单独加工,工件每转动一个齿距取得下一个加工位置。
  • 还有没有其它能够形成齿形轮廓的方法,除成型铣之外?
    最重要的一种方法是滚齿,使用滚刀,一种沿螺旋线布置有多个切削齿的刀具,刀具和工件以蜗轮蜗杆的运动方式同时旋转;此外还有插齿,一种旋转刀具类似铣刀;还有强力刮齿,一种复合了铣齿和插齿的技术。还有一些其它的一些方法比如刨齿(拉齿),磨齿,轧齿等。
  • 铣齿是齿轮加工流程的最后一道工序吗?
    一般来说,铣齿不是齿轮加工工艺的最后一道工序。铣齿完成后,为了齿轮间能实现更好的啮合还需要去除毛刺,锐边也需要进行倒角或倒圆处理,防止淬火后的微裂纹影响齿轮寿命。此外,铣齿能达到的齿轮精度级别也不高,制造高精度的齿轮需要很高的精度和表面质量,还需要其它的工序如剃齿,磨齿,研齿等。
  • 通常齿轮成型铣和加工单个的或小批量的齿轮生产相关,为什么通用刀具生产商,也包括伊斯卡,要提供铣齿的标准产品线?
    在大批量齿轮制造中,齿形成型主要靠专用的滚齿机和滚刀,生产率很高且可持续。然而,更先进的多功能机床扩大了加工工序的范围。在这种机床上工艺技术的发展朝着最大化加工工序的方向发展,即一步完成加工,创造出了新的高精度高生产率的新的工艺方法。铣齿和铣花键就十分适合这种新的机床及工艺。 这种新机床要求刀具制造商提供合适的通用型刀具并且重新考虑齿轮铣刀在其标准产品线中的角色。
  • 什么是齿轮的模数?
    模数是一个公制系统中最主要最基本的齿轮参数,单位是毫米mm。模数m就是齿轮的节圆直径d和齿数z的比值,即m=d/z。
  • 在英制系统中也会用到模数这个齿轮的基本参数吗?
    英制系统中使用的是另一种参数:径节。即在英制分度圆直径上的齿数。如果齿数是N,分度圆直径为D(英制),那么径节P就是N/D。有时候英制齿轮的描述也叫英制模数。原则上来说,这个英制模数在和公制系统中模数的计算方式是一样的,都是分度圆直径除以齿数,但是节径用的是英寸而模数用的是毫米mm。
  • 齿轮和花键的区别是什么?
    齿轮是用于传递两个轴(并不一定都是平行轴)之间的旋转运动的运动链,大多数应用中,这种传动包含了扭矩和转速。齿轮也可用于将旋转运动转变为直线运动。花键连接是两个零件连接在一起从一方向另一方传递机械扭矩,扭矩并未发生变化。
  • 花键和锯齿键有什么区别?
    这个问题中,锯齿键就是花键的一种。锯齿键的特征是V型齿形,常被用于小尺寸的连接。
    切槽
  • 重载工况槽加工,首选哪种刀具?
    如果只做切槽加工应用,可选择DOVEIQGRIP TIGER产品系列,槽刀切宽范围为10-20mm; 如果同时进行切槽加工和车槽加工的应用,可选择SUMO-GRIP TAGB产品系列,槽刀切宽范围为6-14mm。
  • 哪些断屑槽型适合加工粘性高或延展性强的材料?
    可以采用“N”槽型,外圆槽加工应用可选择GIMN刀片,切槽刀片宽度范围为3-8mm;内圆槽加工应用可选择GEMI/GINI刀片,切槽刀片宽度范围为2-5mm。
  • 加工不锈钢材料组ISO-M和钢件材料组ISO-P,有什么推荐的牌号?
    对大多数的加工应用,首选牌号为IC808; 如果您需要更高的硬度且耐磨性更高的牌号,可以选择IC807牌号; 如果您需要韧性更好,适合断续工况的牌号,可以选择IC830牌号。
  • 加工难加工材料组ISO-S(例如高温合金),有什么推荐的牌号?
    加工高温合金材料,首选牌号为IC806; 对于硬度更高的难加工材料(HRC>35),推荐牌号为IC804。
  • 在瑞士自动车类型(走心机)的机床上,有哪些刀体可以选择使用?
    建议选用伊斯卡针对走心机开发的GEHSR/GHSR类型刀体,相对于传统的上压紧方式,带侧向锁紧机构可以方便从刀体两侧自由装卸刀片,更适合走心机上使用;
  • 针对铸铁材料的切槽加工应用,有哪些推荐的牌号和断屑槽型?
    可选用带有K型负倒棱的TGMA/GIA类型切槽刀,推荐牌号有IC5010或IC428。
  • 针对铝合金材料的切槽加工应用,有哪些推荐的牌号和断屑槽型?
    可选用带有锋利、大正前角且经过抛光处理的GIPA/GIDA/FSPA类型刀片,硬质合金推荐牌号为IC20,PCD推荐牌号为ID5; 由于出色的夹持方式,建议首选FSPA双头仿形加工刀片,刀片宽度为6-8mm。
  • 加工小直径零件的内孔槽,有哪些推荐刀具或刀片?
    孔径为2-10mm,可选用PICCO ACE刀柄夹持PICCO系列刀具; 孔径为8-20mm,可选用MGCH刀柄夹持GIQR刀片的刀具; 孔径为12-25mm,可选用GEHIR刀柄夹持GEMI/GEPI刀片的刀具。
  • 如何减少加工过程中产生的振动?
    尽可能采用最小的刀具悬伸; 保持恒定转速RPM加工; 如有必要,建议降低转速; 尽可能选择减小切槽刀的宽度,降低切削力; 对于6mm或8mm的外圆槽,推荐使用WHISPERLINE防振降噪刀板产品。
  • 哪种场合下推荐使用JETCUT高压内冷刀具?
    JETCUT刀具推荐使用在内冷却压力范围为10-340bar的场合,可以将冷却液精准地喷射至切削区域,从而大幅提升刀具寿命和改善切屑形态。
    切断
  • 对于切断加工应用来说伊斯卡有哪些优势刀具?
    对于零件直径小于38mm的常规应用,使用DO-GRIP系列的双头刀片; 对于直径38mm以上切断加工,使用TANG GRIP 系列单头刀片; 对于直径40mm以上切断,可以选用PENTA IQ系列,刀片具有5个切削刃,性价比最高。
  • 什么是切断钢件材料组ISO P最适合的牌号?
    • IC808/908
    什么是切断不锈钢材料组ISO M最适合的牌号?
    • C830/5400
  • 什么是切断钢件材料最适合的断屑槽型?
    • 伊斯卡推荐采用“C”槽型,例如,DGN 3102C
    什么是切断不锈钢材料最适合的断屑槽型?
    • 我们推荐采用“J”槽型,例如,DGN 3102J
  • What are the most recommended tools and inserts for machining miniature parts?
    • First choice is ISCAR DO-GRIP style (double-ended inserts) which has positive geometry, for example DGN 3102J & DGN 3000P
      * Use tools with Short Head dimensions, for example DGTR 12B-1.4D24SH
    • Second choice is to use ISCAR PENTA CUT, an economical insert with 5 cutting edges, for example :
      * PENTA 24N200J020 IC1008 (insert)
      * PCHR 12-24 (tool)
  • What is the best tool for heavy duty applications?
    • Use ISCAR TANG GRIP (single ended) insert – choose width according to part diameter
    • For heavy duty applications ISCAR offers 5-12.7mm insert widths
    • IC830 is the most suitable grade
    • Recommended insert geometry /chipformer is "C" type
  • How to reduce the bur on the part?
    • Use an R or L style of insert - these inserts have a lead angle, so the cutting edge is not straight
    • Also use a positive cutting rake, for example: DGR -3102J-6D (6D =6 degrees lead angle)
    • It is highly recommended to reduce the feed by 50% at the final cut
  • How to improve insert lifespan?
    Analyze the failure phenomena and choose grade accordingly:
    Wear: use a harder grade such as IC808 or 807
    Breakages: choose a harder grade such as IC830
  • Which is the best insert for an interrupted cut?
    Use a negative cutting rake, "C" chipformer and IC830 grade
  • How to improve chip control when long chips appear?
    • Select the correct chipformer and cutting parameters in order to obtain good chip formation
    • Choose a more aggressive chipformer
    • To increase feed, please refer to ISCAR user guide
  • How to improve part straightness and surface?
    • Use neutral insert and a stable tool with the minimum overhang needed
    • Adjust the cutting parameters
  • 快换夹紧式冷却模块“JETCROWN”可以匹配不同的方形刀板吗?
    是的,快换夹紧式冷却模块“JETCROWN”是可以装夹在不同规格尺寸的方形刀板。 每个刀夹通过“冠状”结构夹持在刀体上,内冷孔帮助高效冷却射流能直达作业中的刀片切削刃。重要的是,对于不同宽度的刀片需要使用不同宽度的刀夹; 更多的使用数据,请参阅伊斯卡的产品样本和技术指南。
  • 为什么伊斯卡在现有的LOGIQ-F-GRIP系列刀座的基础上,又推出了在刀座背侧带有加强筋的新型刀座?
    在某些情况下,加强筋会干涉并妨碍伊斯卡LOGIQ-F-GRIP块在典型的刀塔位置上的夹持。 这样的问题可以通过使用在另一侧有加强筋的刀座来解决。在这种情况下,伊斯卡在LOGIQ-F-GRIP产品系列中增加了另一侧带有加强筋的刀座。
    钻孔
  • 钻孔推荐的冷却液流量是多少?
    取决于直径。例如,6 mm 束魔变色龙钻头SUMOCHAM所需的最小流速为每分钟5升。直径20 mm的钻头,所需的最小流速为每分钟 18 升。欲了解更多信息,请参阅伊斯卡样本中的束魔变色龙钻头用户指南,第491页。
  • 钻孔推荐的冷却液压力是多少?
    取决于直径和刀具长度。例如,直径6 mm钻深比8xD的束魔变色龙钻头的最小冷却液压力为 12 bar。对于直径25 mm钻深比 12xD 的束魔变色龙钻头,所需的最小冷却液压力为 4.5 bar。欲了解更多信息,请参阅伊斯卡样本中的束魔变色龙钻头用户指南,第491页。
  • 使用束魔变色龙钻头可以达到怎样的直线度?
    正常情况下,每100mm的钻孔深度的直线度偏差可能从0.03mm到0.05mm不等。重要提示:直线度偏差可能因机床、夹具、工况等因素而异。
  • 导引孔钻头和深孔钻怎么正确搭配?
    为了避免错误,引导孔钻头最好使用和深孔钻同样形式的钻头。有关更详细的说明,请参阅伊斯卡样本,第492页
  • 是否可以用束魔变色龙SUMOCHAM钻头进行镗孔或者扩孔?
    否,束魔变色龙钻头系列不推荐用于镗孔或者扩孔。可能会发生钻头或者钻杆损坏以及孔的质量问题。
  • 加工钛合金材料时推荐什么形式的钻头?
    第一选择是ICG,第二个选择是ICP。
  • 束魔变色龙钻头SUMOCHAM是否可以修磨?
    是的,ICP/ICK/ICM/ICN/FCP刀头可以修磨2-3次。样本中第 502-504 页有详细说明。但是请注意:FCP/HCP/ICG/ICH因为刃型复杂,推荐返厂修磨。
  • 束魔变色龙钻头允许的最大跳动是多少?
    为获得最佳性能和刀具寿命,径向跳动和轴向跳动均不应超过 0.02 mm。在伊斯卡样本中有相关详细的用户指南,从第490页开始。
  • 是否可以使用束魔变色龙钻头SUMOCHAM加工断续孔?
    不推荐采用束魔变色龙钻头加工断续孔。加工过程中受力不均可能会使刀头定位槽丧失夹紧力,导致刀头脱落。断续孔钻孔是比较难处理的,需要针对不同的工况选择有针对性的钻头。
  • 加工淬硬材料伊斯卡推荐什么钻头?
    加工淬硬材料,伊斯卡推荐IC903牌号的SCD-AH整体硬质合金钻头,或者束魔变色龙系列的半标准刀头,即 ICH刀头。
  • 推荐使用什么类型的刀柄?
    可以根据不同钻头柄部形式选择最合适的刀柄。例如,如果钻头是圆柱柄的,最好选择液压刀柄。关于刀柄选择更多推荐请参阅伊斯卡样本中的第 829 页。
  • 束魔变色龙钻头钻通孔时建议钻出孔口多长?
    建议钻头钻出孔口长度不应超过钻头最大直径处起算2-3 mm。
  • 加工铝合金选择哪种刀头?
    取决于加工应用。推荐专用于有色金属加工的标准束魔变色龙钻头SUMOCHAM ICN刀头。
  • 判断束魔变色龙钻头磨损的标准是什么?
    最好在显微镜下观察刃口磨损,但是还有其它5种比较容易的判断方式,具体可参考伊斯卡样本第493页所示。
  • 哪些孔认为是浅孔,哪些孔是深孔?
    常用术语“浅”和“深”孔没有严格的定义。一般来说,一个直径为d和钻深比(10...12)x d或钻深比更大的孔是深孔,而钻深比5×d及以内的孔是浅孔。但是伊斯卡认为只有12×d及以上的钻孔深度才被视为深孔,12xd以内的孔是浅孔。
  • What is a cutting length series of drills?
    The drills vary in their cutting length. In general, tool manufacturers normalize the drills by cutting length series (short, regular, etc.), according to the ratio "cutting length/drill diameter". At ISCAR, drills intended for machining short holes are usually divided into the following length series: short (up to 3×d), long (4×d and 5×d) and extra-long (8×d and 12×d).
  • 在中心孔钻孔中, 变形金刚可换式硬质合金刀头是否是高速钢(HSS)中心钻头的真正的替代品?
    双头高速钢 HSS 中心钻头是最受欢迎的中心钻头刀具:它们简单,随时可以购买,并且价格低廉。但变形金刚可换式硬质合金刀头可大幅提高切削速度和进给,从而提高生产率并降低加工成本,特别是在加工难加工材料的情况下。此外,刀头的刀具寿命要长得多。通过简单的经济性计算就能得出每种情况下的变形金刚中心钻都是首选替代方案。
  • 带分屑槽的结构设计是否适用于直径相对较小的钻头?
    带分屑槽切削几何形状可用于钻孔刀具。有不同的带有分屑槽钻头切削刃设计,例如束魔变色龙钻头 ICG头,分屑槽设计在切削刃后刀面,可以将切屑分成小段,以提高排屑效果和切削速度。在相同的切削条件下,不带分屑槽的钻头可以获得更好的表面光洁度。因此,带分屑槽的钻头主要适用于没有特别精度要求的钻孔。
  • Is a chip-splitting cutting geometry suitable for drills of a relatively small diameter?
    A chip-splitting cutting geometry may be used in drilling tools. There are different drill cutting edge designs with chip splitting grooves, for example the SUMOCHAM ICG heads. Splitting chips into small segments improves chip evacuation and cutting speed. Under the same cutting conditions, a straight-style edge ensures better surface finish. Therefore, chip-splitting geometry is suitable mainly for rough drilling operations.
  • 束魔变色龙钻SUMOCHAMIQ可换头式刀头HCP的凹面,宝塔形切削刃有哪些优点?
    切削刃的形状大大增强了钻头的自定心能力,并且可以直接钻深度达12×d的孔,而无需预先钻出导引孔。此外,HCP几何形状有助于逐渐切入到被加工材料中,可有效降低切削力,从而获得更好的孔质量 - 特别是当钻孔深度很大时。
  • What are the advantages of chamfering rings for drills?
    A chamfering ring is intended for mounting in the body of a standard drill in the desired position according to the drill tip. The ring mounting configures a combined holemaking tool that can perform drilling and chamfering in one operation.
  • Is it possible to regrind LOGIQ3CHAM 3 flute exchangeable drill heads directly at the customers' premises?
    Regrinding new geometries of these 3 flute drill heads is complicated and cannot usually be done locally.
  • What are the ISCAR products for deep drilling?
    ISCAR's line of deep drilling tools comprises gundrills and drills for ejector and single tube (STS) systems.
  • 带FLEXFIT接口的束魔变色龙钻头SUMOCHAM可以安装在FLEXFIT接口的刀柄和刀杆上吗?
    伊斯卡生产的模块化钻头将束魔变色龙的设计与FLEXFIT接口相结合,以实现快速安装。各种 FLEXFIT 接口的刀柄和刀杆都可以与其连接,用于缩短刀具长度提高刚性,因此带FLEXFIT接口的模块化钻头特别适合工具空间有限的机床(例如在多主轴和瑞士机床上)。
  • Do the terms "step drill" and "subland drill" mean the same?
    Not exactly. A step drill is a drill with cutting areas of different diameters to generate a step-diameter hole in one pass. A subland drill is a solid twist step drill, which features different lands for each diameter. However, a step twist drill has the same land along the drill body. Usually, there are two drilling areas in a subland drill. A subland drill is a sub type of step drill.
  • When should a carbide guide pad in a deep drilling tool be reversed or replaced?
    Even though the guide pads do not cut material, they, like carbide cutting inserts or heads, are subject to wear. A damaged or worn out guide pad causes unacceptable roughness and scratching of the machined hole surface.
    The pads should be thoroughly examined visually before applying a drill. If a pad is damaged or the pad working corner wears out approximately 70% of the corner width, the pad should be reversed or replaced.
  • 什么是加强钻头stub drill?
    通常指排屑槽缩短的螺旋钻头,这种钻头刚性和强度更好。 加强钻头通常被称为超短钻头。
  • 伊斯卡平底钻主要应用是什么?
    主要应用于孔底要求几乎为平的钻孔。例如,螺钉沉头孔、弹簧座、密封壳体等的沉头孔。 其优点是直接钻无需预钻孔。
  • 伊斯卡用于加工复合材料的刀具产品系列包括带PCD钻尖和焊片的整体硬质合金钻头。 这些钻头可以修磨吗?
    是的,可以。这两种钻头都有较大的余量用于修磨,可以修磨多次。
  • 哪些钻头被视为微型钻头?
    尽管没有一般的定义,但直径小于2-3mm(0.08-.125”英寸)的钻头通常被称为微型钻头。有时,这种钻头也被称为“小直径钻头”。
  • What is a drill mill?
    It is a combined rotating tool that comprises two cutting sections: a drill tool and milling peripheral cutter. The drilling tool is intended to drill a hole. By combining the milling cutter, the hole can be enlarged.
  • Does ISCAR provide flat bottom drills with 3 flutes?
    ISCAR LOGIQ-3-CHAM family comprises 3 flute flat bottom drilling heads which can be mounted on any drill type related to this family, to create a flat bottom hole in solid material without pre-drilling.
  • What is the MODUDRILL?
    ISCAR's MODUDRILL is a modular drilling tool system. A typical MODUDRILL tool is an assembly of tools which comprises a steel body and exchangeable drilling heads mounted on the same body. There are two types of the heads: the first with guide pads carrying indexable carbide inserts, and the second with replaceable CHAM-IQ-DRILL solid carbide heads. In addition, the system contains a steel extension that can be mounted on the body to increase the drilling depth.
  • What is an NC spotting drill?
    An NC spotting drill (also referred to as a NC spot drill) is a precise drill that features a small cutting depth, typically around the height of a drill point. NC spotting drills are intended mainly for pre-drilling an accurate location and to ensure precise and fast subsequent drilling operations without guide bushings, especially on CNC machines. Typically, the NC spotting drills have a 90-degrees point angle.
  • What is peck drilling?
    In peck drilling also referred to as drilling with peck feed or simply "pecking", a drill is repetitively retracted to evacuate chips to dissipate heat.
    铰削
  • 什么时候需要用到铰削?
    当钻孔或者镗孔不能达到孔的公差和表面粗糙度要求的时候。
  • 标准的铰刀适用于加工什么公差范围的孔?
    伊斯卡标准的铰刀产品适用于加工IT7的孔公差范围的孔。
  • 标准铰刀是否适用于所有被加工材料?
    标准铰刀适用于加工大部分被加工材料,但是针对ISO N和ISO S材料组,最好咨询技术部门以获得最合适的解决方案。
  • 铰刀的平均刀具寿命是多少?
    由于影响刀具寿命有许多不同的因素(如材料、冷却液、公差、跳动等),因此很难估计刀具寿命,应针对不同的案例进行单独评估。
  • 是否可以在没有任何冷却液的情况下进行铰孔?
    不。没有冷却液的情况下铰孔是不合适的; 最理想的情况是使用内冷,没有内冷时使用外冷进行铰孔也可以。
  • 铰孔的余量推荐范围?
    铰孔余量取决于被加工材料、铰刀直径、刀具形式以及跳动等实际工况。一般情况下推荐余量0.15-0.4mm/直径。
  • 铰孔允许的最大主轴跳动是多少?
    通常来说,铰孔允许的最大主轴跳动在0.01mm左右,但同时也需要根据孔径和公差要求来判定。主轴跳动超过0.01mm,用户需要使用ADJ可调同心刀柄对跳动进行补偿和调节。
  • What is the main advantage an ISCAR's reamer with rolling devices?
    This reamer combines a BAYO-T-REAM high-speed reamer with a rolling device in one single tool. This ensures achieving an accurate hole with exceptional, mirror-like, surface finish.
    ISO车削
  • How to increase productivity for super alloys and Ni-based materials with ISCAR Ceramic Grades?
    ISCAR has a wide range of ceramic grades, such as the IW7, for machining super alloys and Ni-based materials.
    Our ceramic grades have the ability to work ten times faster in cutting speed - from 150M/min up to 450M/min - which is ten times higher than any conventional carbide inserts. This dramatically increases productivity.
  • What is ISCAR’s first choice in chip formers for steel machining?
    ISCAR introduces three new chipformers for finishing medium and rough turning of steel: F3P, M3P and R3P.
    The chipformers, combined with ISCAR’s SUMO TEC grades, deliver higher productivity, longer tool life, improved workpiece quality, and more reliable performance. The new chipformers generate less heat and avoid the problem of chips attaching themselves to cutting tools and components. Chips are broken down into smaller pieces, preventing them from tangling around the workpiece and enabling more efficient removal from conveyor belts.
  • How to improve chip control with the CBN insert?
    CBN inserts are mainly used for machining hard materials with high hardness levels from 55 and up to 62 Rc. Conventional CBN inserts offer a wide range of brazed and flat tips that produce long and curled chips during the turning/machining of hard steel. The result is long chips that scratch the work piece and damage the surface quality. The ISCAR solution is a new CBN insert with ground chip breaker on the cutting edge, providing excellent chip control in medium to finishing applications with high surface quality.
  • How to reduce vibrations on a boring bar with a high overhang of more than 4xBD?
    Throughout the world, machinists have to deal with the presence of problematic vibrations on a daily basis. To help solve these difficulties, ISCAR’s Research and Development division has produced an anti-vibration boring bar which contains the dampening mechanism inside the body. This reduces and even eliminates vibrations when using boring bars with a high overhang. The new anti-vibration line is called WHISPERLINE.
  • How to increase productivity in gray cast iron machining with ISCAR Ceramic Grades?
    Gray cast iron is recognized as the most popular material in the automotive industry. For machining gray cast iron, ISCAR offers a wide range of ceramic grades such as IS6 SiAlON inserts.
    The IS6 grade was developed in order to increase productivity in gray cast iron machining. The main advantage of our IS6 SiAlON ceramic grades is the ability to work three to four times faster in cutting speed, from 400M/min and up to 1200M/min, which is three times higher than any conventional carbide inserts. This increases productivity dramatically.
  • What is ISCAR’s first choice in chip formers for stainless steel?
    ISCAR is introducing 3 new chipformers: F3M, M3M and R3M for finishing, medium and rough turning stainless steel which, together with the most advanced SUMOTEC grades, provide higher productivity, tool life and performance reliability.
    The F3M chipformer has positive rake angles for smooth cutting, reduced cutting forces and insert wear, leading to dramatically increased tool life.
    The M3M chipformer is for medium machining of stainless steel with reinforced cutting edge and positive rake angle to reduce cutting forces and for smooth cutting.
    The R3M chipformer for chip breakers is for rough machining of stainless steel with reinforced cutting edge and positive rake angle to reduce cutting forces.
  • What is the effect of high-pressure coolant?
    The main advantage of the JETCUT tools is the ability to supply the coolant directly into the cutting zone to ensure high coolant efficiency in order to improve chip control, reduce heat and extend insert life.
    The high pressure coolant effect is mainly achieved in the machining of sticky and gummy materials such as super alloys, stainless steel, titanium etc…
  • Does ISCAR provide tools for Y-axis turning?
    Yes, ISCAR provides these tools.
    陶瓷牌号 & 刀片
  • 如何用伊斯卡陶瓷刀片提高加工级超级合金和镍基合金的生产率?
    伊斯卡有多种陶瓷材料牌号,如IW7,用于加工超级合金和镍基合金。 我们的陶瓷牌号能够以10倍于硬质合金牌号的切削速度来加工,从150M/min到450M/min,比任何传统硬质合金刀片至少高出10倍,这大大提高了生产率。
  • 伊斯卡为钢件切削加工推荐的槽型是什么?
    伊斯卡提供三种新的断屑槽型来加工钢件,包括分别用于精加工,半精加工和粗加工的F3P槽型、M3P槽型和R3P槽型。 新的槽型与伊斯卡的束魔涂层后处理技术(SUMO TEC)相结合,可提供更高的生产率、更长的刀具寿命、更好的工件表面质量和更可靠的加工性能。 新的断屑槽产生的热量更少,避免了切屑粘附于刀具和加工工件上。切屑被切分为更小碎屑,防止它们缠绕在工件上,并能更有效的排屑。
  • 如何使用立方氮化硼(CBN)刀片实现更佳的切屑控制?
    CBN刀片主要用于加工硬度高达HRC 55-62的淬硬材料。传统的CBN刀片钎焊各式平的小CBN焊片,在车削加工淬硬钢时会形成长卷屑,长卷屑不仅会划伤工件表面,而且会破坏表面质量。伊斯卡的解决方案是提供带有磨制断屑槽的新型CBN刀片,可以实现更出色的切屑控制,在半精加工和精加工中获得更好的表面光洁度。
  • 如何降低悬伸超过4倍径(4xBD)的内孔镗孔时的振刀?
    在世界各地,车床操作人员每天都要处理各种振刀的难题。为了帮助解决这些困难,伊斯卡研发部门研制出一种防振镗杆(WHISPERLINE),该镗杆内装有减振机构,当加工大悬伸的内孔时,可以降低甚至消除振动。
  • 如何提高使用伊斯卡陶瓷牌号在灰铸铁加工中的生产效率?
    灰铸铁被认为是汽车工业中最受欢迎的材料。针对灰铸铁的加工,伊斯卡提供多种陶瓷牌号,也包括IS6 SiAlON牌号陶瓷刀片。IS6牌号是为了提高灰铸铁加工的生产率而开发的。伊斯卡的IS6 SiAlON陶瓷牌号的主要优点是,相比于任何传统硬质合金刀片其切削速度可以提高三到四倍,从400m/min到1200m/min。这大大提高了生产率。
  • 伊斯卡在不锈钢加工中首选的断屑槽型是什么?
    伊斯卡提供三种新的断屑槽型用于不锈钢的加工:F3M、M3M和R3M,分别适用于精加工、半精加工和粗加工。与最先进的束魔涂层后处理技术(SUMOTEC)相结合,可以获得更高的生产率,刀具寿命和性能可靠性。F3M断屑槽的大正前角可实现轻快切削,降低切削力和减小刀片磨损,显著提高刀具寿命。M3M断屑槽适用于不锈钢的半精加工,具有强固切削刃和大正前角,能有效降低切削力并实现轻快切削。R3M断屑槽适用于不锈钢的粗加工,具有强固切削刃和大正前角,可以降低加工中切削力。
  • 高压冷却的作用是什么?
    JETCUT高压冷却刀具的主要优点是使得冷却射流能直接作用于切削区域,以确保高冷却效率,改善切屑控制,降低切削热并提高刀具寿命。高压冷却的效果主要用于加工粘性金属材料,如超级合金、不锈钢、钛合金等。
    螺纹加工
  • 最合适加工不锈钢的刀片牌号是什么?
    IC1007
  • 最合适加工高温合金的刀片牌号是什么?
    IC806
  • 在低速和不稳定工况的条件下最适合选用的刀片牌号是什么?
    IC228
  • 螺纹加工的最小的推荐进刀值是多少?
    比钝化值更大一些
  • 为什么断屑槽没起到作用?
    显然切深太小,所以切屑槽没有起到作用。
  • 如何改善切屑控制?
    通过选择正确的进刀方式来改善切屑控制。
    • 径向进刀
    • 侧向进刀
    • 交替侧向进刀
  • 通用牙型螺纹刀片和全牙型螺纹刀片的区别是什么?
    通用牙型:
    • 可加工不同的螺纹标准的螺纹,适用于60º或55º的多种螺距范围的螺纹加工。
    • 刀片带有很小的根部圆角,可适用于小螺距范围内的螺纹加工。
    • 还需要额外加工来获取外圆直径和内孔直径。
    • 不太推荐用于大批量生产。
    • 可以有效减少刀片的种类。
    全牙型:
    • 可加工出完整的螺纹牙型
    • 根部倒圆角
    • 只适用于特定螺距螺纹的加工
    • 推荐用于大批量生产
    • 只适用于加工一种与其对应的螺纹牙型
  • What is the difference between partial to full profile insert?
    Partial profile:
    • Performs different thread standards and is suitable for a wide range of pitches that have a common angle (60º or 55º)
    • Inserts with a small root-corner radius suitable for the smallest pitch of the range
    • Additional operations to complete the outer/internal diameter is necessary
    • Not recommended for mass production
    • Eliminates the need for different inserts
    Full profile:
    • Performs complete thread profile
    • Root corner radius is only
    • Suitable for the relevant pitch
    • Recommended for mass production
    • Suitable for one profile only
  • 如何正确选择刀垫?
    与刀垫配合后,形成的倾角为正值的适用于右手刀杆加工右手螺纹或左手刀杆加工左手螺纹。
    与刀垫配合后,形成的倾角为负值的适用于左手刀杆加工右手螺纹或右手刀杆加工左手螺纹。
    使用AE刀垫来适配右手刀杆的外螺纹加工和左手刀杆的内螺纹加工。
    使用AI刀垫来适配右手刀杆的内螺纹加工和左手刀杆的外螺纹加工。
    刀具材质牌号
  • 什么是刀具材料?
    在切削刀具中,刀具材料是生产可切削加工的材料,也就是在加工中直接参与切削工件的材料。
  • 伊斯卡如何定义其刀具材料?
    伊斯卡用字母和数字来定义其刀具材料的牌号,字母代表了不同的材料组别: IB – 立方氮化硼(CBN) IC – 硬质合金和金属陶瓷 ID – 聚晶金刚石(PCD) IS – 陶瓷 DT – 在硬质合金基体上施加复合涂层(CVD+PVD)
  • What is a carbide grade?
    A combination of cemented carbide, coating and post-coating treatment produces a carbide grade. Only one of these components - the cemented carbide - is the necessary element of the grade. The others are optional. Cemented carbide is a composite material comprising hard carbide particles that are cemented by binding metal (mainly cobalt).
    Most cemented carbides used for producing cutting tools integrate wear-resistant coating and are known as “coated cemented carbides”. There are also various treatment processes that are applied to already coated cemented carbide (for example, the rake surface of an indexable insert). “Cemented carbide” can refer both to the substrate of a coated grade and to an uncoated grade.
  • How does ISCAR classify carbide grades?
    The international standard ISO 513 classifies hard cutting material based on their reasonable applicability with respect to the materials. ISCAR adopted this standard and uses the same approach in tool development. Cemented carbides are very hard materials and therefore they can cut most engineering materials, which are softer. Some carbide grades demonstrate better performance than others in cutting tools applied to machining a specific class of materials.
  • The groups of application of carbide grades in accordance with ISO 513 include letters and numbers after the letter. What do they mean?
    The letters in the group of application define a class of engineering materials, to which a tool that is produced from a specific grade, can be applied successfully. The classification numbers show hardness-toughness ratio of the grade in an arbitrary scale. Higher numbers indicate an increase in grade toughness, while lower numbers indicate an increase in grade hardness.
  • What is SUMO TEC technology?
    SUMO TEC is a specific post-coating treatment process developed by ISCAR. The treatment has the effect of making coated surfaces even and uniform, minimizing inner stresses and droplets in coating. In CVD coatings, due to the difference in thermal expansion coefficients between the substrate and the coating layers, internal tensile stresses are produced. Also, PVD coatings feature surface droplets. These factors negatively affect a coating and therefore shorten insert tool life.
    Applying SUMOTEC post-coating technologies considerably reduces and even removes these unwanted defects and results in increasing tool life and greater productivity.
  • Why are PVD nano layered coatings considered so efficient and progressive?
    PVD coatings were introduced during the late 1980’s. With the use of advanced nanotechnology, PVD coatings performed a gigantic step in overcoming complex problems that were impeding progress in the field.
    Developments in science and technology brought a new class of wear-resistant nano layered coatings. These coatings are a combination of layers having a thickness of up to 50 nm (nanometers) and demonstrate significant increases in the strength of the coating compared to conventional methods.
  • The designation of ISCAR’s carbide grades usually starts from letters “IC”. Why is grade DT7150 (DO-TEC) designated differently?
    Coating technology features two principal directions - Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) and Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD). Technology development allows both methods – CVD and PVD – to be combined for insert coatings, as a means of controlling coating properties.
    ISCAR’s carbide grade DT7150 features a tough substrate and a dual MT CVD (Medium Temperature CVD) and TiAlN PVD coating. The grade was originally developed to improve the productive machining of special-purpose hard cast iron.
  • Why are several of ISCAR’s carbide grades referred to by customers as “sun tan” grades?
    Some PVD coated (like IC840 or IC882) and CVD coated (IC5820, for example) carbide grades, originally developed for machining ISO S and ISO M materials, feature a bronze chocolate color. The “sunbathed” appearance of the inserts produced from these grades resulted in the shop talk definition “sun tan” grade.
  • 这些常用的定义:“超细”、“亚微米”和“细”硬质合金牌号之间的根本区别是什么?
    这些定义中的每一个都与碳化物基体中硬质合金晶粒的大小有关。硬质合金产品制造商的各种标准和规范的尺寸可能略有不同,但通常指以下各项: 1-1.4μm(40-55μin)晶粒度 细级 0.7-0.9μm(27.5-35μin)晶粒度 亚微米级 0.2-0.6μm(8-24μin)晶粒度 超细级 此外,根据晶粒度的不同,还有中等、粗、超粗甚至纳米级硬质合金晶粒。例如,纳米级具有非常小的晶粒尺寸:小于0.2μm或8μin
  • 哪些术语是正确的:“cemented carbide硬质合金”、“tungsten carbide碳化钨”、“wolfram carbide钨合金”或“hard metal硬质金属”?
    以上四个术语都指硬质合金。“Tungsten钨”是化学元素Wolfram钨的另一个名词。(顺便说一句,这个词起源于瑞典语,意思是“沉重的石头”)。 在刀具制造领域,通常使用“cemented carbide硬质合金”、“tungsten carbide碳化钨”和缩写词“HM”(硬质金属)。
  • 陶瓷作为刀具材料的主要特性是什么?
    与硬质合金相比,陶瓷具有相当高的热硬性和化学惰性。这意味着陶瓷确保了更高的切削度,并消除了扩散磨损。陶瓷具有较低的抗裂性,这一特性突出了刃口处理方式的重要性,是能否加工成功的关键因素。
  • 陶瓷的主要类型是什么?
    陶瓷主要有两种类型: 基于氧化铝(Al2O3) 基于氮化硅(Si3N4) 氧化铝基陶瓷 包括高纯氧化铝基陶瓷(“氧化物”或“白色”)、混合氧化铝基陶瓷(“黑色”)和强化氧化铝基陶瓷。 氮化硅基陶瓷Si3N4 可分为几种类型,根据含量、机械性能和生产工艺。赛阿龙陶瓷SiAlON(“SiAlON”)通常归属于另一类陶瓷。 陶瓷作为切削材料,根据其韧性-硬度特性,介于硬质合金和超硬材料诸如聚晶金刚石(PCD)和立方氮化硼(CBN)之间。
  • 晶须强化陶瓷的优点是什么?
    晶须强化或“晶须”陶瓷是由均匀分散的碳化硅晶须强化的氧化铝基陶瓷。晶须陶瓷比未强化的氧化铝基陶瓷具有更高的硬度和强度,从而提高了切削性能。
  • 赛阿龙sialon是什么?
    赛阿龙或更准确地说,Sialon是一种由硅(Si)、铝(Al)、氧(O)和氮(N)组成的陶瓷。SiAlON可以被认为是一种基于氮化硅的陶瓷,但其韧性较低,抗氧化性较高。生产SiAlON比生产其他氮化硅基陶瓷更简单。
  • 什么是金属陶瓷?
    “金属陶瓷”一词由“陶瓷”和“金属”组成。它是一种人造复合材料,通常采用粉末冶金技术制成。金属陶瓷是一种硬质合金,硬质晶粒由钛基化合物代替碳化钨,碳化钨是切削工具中常用的硬质合金材料。与碳化钨相比,金属陶瓷具有更高的耐磨性和抗氧化性,但其韧性要差一些。此外,金属陶瓷对热负荷非常敏感。
  • What is the difference between CBN and PCBN?
    Both CBN and PCBN relate to Boron Nitride (BN) - a polymorph material formed by two chemical elements. Boron Nitride exists in different crystal structures. One is cubic and the BN in this structure is Cubic Boron Nitride (CBN).
    As a cutting tool material, CBN is used as a polycrystalline compound, where CBN particles and an added binder are sintered together. The material produced is "Polycrystalline CBN" or simply "PCBN". The percentage of CBN can vary in different PCBN grades. In the context of cutting tools, the commonly used abbreviations "CBN" and "PCBN" may be considered as synonyms.
  • 陶瓷、CBN和PCD能否用于钛合金的加工?
    陶瓷和立方氮化硼(CBN)不适用于钛合金的加工,聚晶金刚石(PCD)已在几种情况下证明其在钛合金的精加工中有作用。
  • ISO 513标准是否仅涉及硬质合金?
    答案是否定的。ISO 513标准规定了硬质合金、陶瓷、金刚石和氮化硼等硬切削材料的应用和规格。
  • 类金刚石(DLC)涂层刀具的主要应用是什么?
    DLC涂层刀具主要用于加工铝和有色金属材料(ISO N材料组)。
  • 哪些切削材料被称为超硬材料?
    通常,金刚石和立方氮化硼(CBN)是被认为是两种最硬的超硬切削材料。
  • What is the difference between TiAlN and AlTiN coatings?
    The main difference between titanium aluminum nitride (TiAlN) or aluminum titanium nitride (AlTiN) coatings is the content of aluminum which is not above 50% with reference to TiAlN, and more than 50% in AlTiN. The dominating metallic element is written first in the coating formula.
  • What is a superlattice?
    In cutting tool coatings, this is another term for multi-layer nano coating.
  • What is the main function of coatings in cutting tools?
    The main function of cutting tool coatings is to improve the wear strength of a tool, specifically to increase resistance to abrasion, adhesive wear, and to provide thermal protection for prolonged tool life.
  • What is the advantage of natural diamond as a tool material when compared to synthetic polycrystalline diamond (PCD)?
    The monocrystalline structure of natural diamond provides a perfect cutting-edge contour without any junction points. This feature provides a substantial advantage to ensure ultra-high, really "mirror" surface finish required in some applications such as machining crucial parts of optical equipment. In contrast, a PCD cutting edge is formed by various crystals. This produces appropriate junctions on the edge, consequently every junction produces its own trace on a machined surface.
  • Which PCBN grade is considered to possess high CBN content and which has low?
    This subject is not defined, yet depending on CBN percentage the PCBN grades are divided according to:
    - high-CBN-content grades (85% and more),
    - low-CBN-content grades (about 55%).
    工程材料
  • 在提供有关切削参数的建议时,伊斯卡如何对工程材料进行分类?
    伊斯卡材料组按照国际标准ISO 513—金属切削用硬质切削材料的分类和应用进行,指定了主要材料组和应用材料组以及技术指南VDI 3323(关于金属切削用硬质切削牌号的适用性)。 备注:VDI是德国工程师协会。
  • ISO 513 标准指定用于加工不锈钢的切削刀具为适用于ISO M 材料组的刀具,这是正确的吗?
    在ISO 513中,ISO M材料组(黄色识别颜色)涉及用于加工奥氏体和奥氏体/铁素体(双相)结构的不锈钢的工具。铁素体和马氏体不锈钢属于ISO P组(蓝色),应相应地设置起始切削参数。
  • 加工钛可以像加工奥氏体不锈钢一样吗?
    商用纯钛和在某些应用中,α钛合金或α-β钛合金可以像奥氏体不锈钢一样加工,但不适用于热处理后的β钛合金和近β合金。
  • What is “titanium beta”?
    “Titanium beta” is an expression that occurs in aerospace industry lingo/shop talk. It can refer to two different materials - a β-annealed α-β- titanium alloy or, rarely, a β-alloy. Therefore the expression should be exactly specified before using it, or even avoided to prevent possible misunderstanding.
  • 为什么将 ISO M 材料组和ISO S 材料组的可加工性放在一起考虑?
    这些材料是难加工的材料,都具有影响切削加工性的共同特征:低导热性和较高切削力。
  • 铸铁是否与 ISO K 材料组相关?
    大多数铸铁牌号(灰铸铁、球墨铸铁、可煅铸铁)与ISO K材料组有关。 加工淬硬铸铁或冷硬铸铁时,应根据ISO H材料组的建议选择合适的切削刀具(以及相应的切削参数)。 软质奥氏体球墨铸铁(ADI)与ISO P材料组对应。 淬硬后的奥氏体球墨铸铁 (ADI) 对应到ISO H 材料组。
  • Which steel is pre-hardened and which is hard?
    Steel producers supply steels in different delivery conditions: annealed, pre-hardened, hardened. The loosely defined term "pre-hardened steel" relates to steel that is hardened and tempered to a hardness that is not too high - generally this is less than HRC 45. The terms "pre-hardened" and "hard steel" are allied to cutting tool development and the ability of the tools to cut material. Commonly, the steels can be divided into the following conditional groups depending on their hardness:
    • Soft (annealed to hardness up to HB 250)
    • Pre-hardened to two ranges:
      - HRC 30-37
      - HRC 38-44
    • Hardened to three ranges:
      - HRC 45-49
      - HRC 50-55
      - HRC 56-63 and more

    As for "hard steel", usually it refers to steel hardened to HRC 60 and more.
  • What is Ebonite and how to machine this material?
    Ebonite is a hard vulcanized rubber containing a high percentage of sulfur. For the purpose of identifying a suitable tool and appropriate cutting data, Ebonite is characterized by ISCAR material group 30 (ISO N application class). To machine Ebonite effectively, we advise following ISCAR’s recommendations for this group.
  • Are hard metal and heavy metal the same?
    No.
    In metalworking, "hard metal" is a commonly used name for cemented carbide, which is a sintered hard material based on wolfram (tungsten) carbide. Cemented carbide is often referred as simply tungsten carbide. It is the main cutting tool material used today.
    Heavy metals are metals with high atomic weight or density. In the metalworking industry, the term “heavy metal” usually refers to heavy metal alloys, which are sintered composite materials containing 90% or more tungsten.
  • What is the difference between duplex and super duplex stainless steels?
    Duplex stainless steel has a two-phase metallurgical structure: austenitic-ferritic, approximately in equal shares.
    Super duplex stainless steel is a type of duplex stainless steel that contains an increased percentage of chromium and molybdenum for better corrosion resistance.
    From a machinability point of view, these steels are hard-to-cut.
  • 加工制造塑料制品很常见吗?塑料的可加工性如何?
    今天真的很难想象没有塑料的生活 - 基于合成或天然高分子化合物(聚合物)的有机材料。塑料制品无处不在。一步一步地,塑料在许多工业领域取代了传统材料,今天塑料被认为是最重要的结构材料之一。制造塑料零件主要与化学过程有关;但是,在某些情况下,还需要加工。从技术的角度来看,塑料有三大类:热塑性塑料,热固性塑料和弹性体。塑料按用途可分为商品塑料和工程塑料。机械加工更常见于用工程塑料生产零件,工程塑料主要由热塑性塑料代表。塑料具有非常好的机械加工性。 与金属相比,通常刀具可以以更高的速度和进给量对塑料进行切削,而应用的切削刀具具有显见更少的磨损。需要关注的是,选择合适的切削刀具对于获得所需的精度和出色的表面光洁度至关重要。
  • What is Vitallium and how to machine this material?
    Vitallium is a cobalt (Co)-chrome (Cr) alloy that contents approximately 60% of Co, 30% of Cr, 8% of molybdenum and some other elements. Vitallium was developed in the 1930's, and is now used mainly in joint replacement surgery and dental medicine. The alloy is hard-to-machine. Cutting data should be set according to recommendations, related to ISCAR material groups 34 and 35.
  • What is the difference between stainless steel and corrosion resistant steel?
    These definitions are generally used synonymously, along with definitions such as rust-resistant steel, inox steel, and non-corrosive steel.
    In fact, stainless steel may actually be divided into the following types according to their main functional features:
    • Corrosion-resistant steel, resistant to corrosion under normal conditions
    • Oxidation- or rust-resistant steel, resistant to corrosion under high temperatures in aggressive environments
    • Heat-resistant or high-temperature steel that does not change its strength under high temperature stress
    Therefore, corrosion-resistant steel can be considered as a type of stainless steel.
  • 加工蜂窝结构的高温合金工件的主要困难是什么?
    加工这些工件的主要困难是工件刚度低,这是由工件的薄壁结构引起的。源于蜂窝结构,工件经常无法正确夹紧,导致整个技术系统的刚度进一步降低。
  • 什么是镍钛诺(镍和钛的非磁性合金),它的可加工性如何?
    镍钛诺,也称为镍钛或Ni-Ti,是镍和钛的金属合金。镍钛诺的加工会导致切削刀具的剧烈磨损和氧化磨损。此外,切削速度会严重影响刀具寿命 - 如果速度太慢或过高,刀具寿命会急剧下降。通常,采用 ISO S 材料组的刀具用于加工镍钛诺。
  • 哪种不锈钢被认为是超级奥氏体不锈钢?
    超级奥氏体不锈钢是奥氏体不锈钢,其特点是钼含量高(6%以上),铬和镍的百分比增加。材料的组合具有很高的耐点蚀性。通常具有抗点蚀性和当量数(PREN)大于40的奥氏体不锈钢是超级奥氏体。通常,与奥氏体不锈钢相比,超级奥氏体不锈钢更难加工。
  • 什么是“点火电阻当量数”?
    “耐点蚀当量数”(PREN)是一个条件值,用于表征基于不锈钢含量的不锈钢对点蚀的理论抵抗力。有几种方法可以通过使用方程来计算PREN。
  • 什么是“软钢mild steel”?
    “软钢mild steel”是低碳钢的另一个名称。
  • 加工哈德菲尔高锰钢的主要困难是什么?
    哈德菲尔德钢的锰含量很高:平均为12%,因此通常被称为“锰钢”。它具有奥氏体结构,可确保高耐磨性,并具有出色的冲击韧性和高延展性。加工时,这种钢会硬化并对切削加工性产生不利影响。由于奥氏体的高延展性及其加工硬化的倾向,哈德菲尔高锰钢是一种非常难以切削的材料。
  • 加工铍及其合金时应考虑哪些因素?
    在加工铍(Be)及其合金时,切削材料时产生的细小铍粉尘可能对健康有害。使用配备适当集屑装置的机床至关重要。 由于铍的高脆性,加工表面可能会在加工过程中被微裂纹和微流损坏。为避免表面损坏,加工过程应得到控制 - 刚性工件夹紧和消除振动非常重要。 铍青铜,也称为铍铜或铍Cu,具有良好的切削加工性。在加工这种合金时,用户应遵循伊斯卡关于与铜合金相关的切削参数的建议。
  • What is Zamak and how to machine it?
    Zamak, also referred to as ZAMAK, ZAMAC, or Zamac, is a group of zinc-based alloys. The principal alloying elements are aluminum, magnesium and copper. These alloys feature good machinability and their cutting usually does not cause difficulties. ISCAR's tools for the ISO N group of applications are recommended for machining Zamak.
  • 哪种铸铁被命名为“蠕墨铸铁vermicular”,它的切削加工性如何?
    蠕墨铸铁vermicular 是紧密石墨铸铁(CGI)的另一个名称。这种铸铁的结构具有蠕虫形石墨颗粒。 根据其切削加工特性,蠕墨铸铁或CGI介于灰铸铁和球墨铸铁之间。
  • 什么是“贝氏体球墨铸铁bainitic ductile cast iron”?
    “贝氏体球墨铸铁”(BDCI)是奥氏体-贝氏体球墨铸铁(ADI)的另一个名称,也称为“奥氏铁矿球墨铸铁”。
  • 马氏体时效钢的切削加工性如何?
    通常,马氏体时效钢是在退火条件下加工的,这没有任何具体问题。当热处理后,其加工变得更加困难。选择切削刀具和查找初始切削数据的一般规则是使用与相同硬度的高合金钢相同的建议。
  • What is "Nichrome" and how is it machined?
    "Nichrome" is the name of a whole group of Nickel-Chromium alloys. It is also referred to as Chrome-Nickel, NiCr, Ni-Cr, etc. The well-recognized Nichrome 80 (Nichrome 80/20) comprises 80% Nickel and 20% Chromium. Other Nichrome grades may contain additional elements such as Iron.
    In machining Nichrome, the initial cutting data can be chosen as it’s recommended for Nickel-based superalloys.
  • 哪些材料被认为是具有特殊性的?
    除了铁基合金(钢,不锈钢,铸铁)和普通有色金属合金(铝合金,黄铜,青铜)等主流工程材料外,还有一些独特类型的材料是为满足特定需求而开发的。这些独特的材料具有专门的应用;它们很少见,不常用,通常制造起来更昂贵。 不存在对外来材料的准确商用定义。许多专家将它们称为金属,如铍,锆等及其合金,陶瓷,复合材料和高温合金。在考虑结构材料的使用时,应首先区分高温合金和复合材料。加工特殊材料可能很困难。
  • 什么是Stellite,如何加工它?
    Stellite是一系列钨铬钴合金,用于耐磨零件和工具材料。 Stellite的切削加工性较差,与易切削钢相比,大约低十倍。因此,使用硬质合金刀具加工Stellite具有非常低的切削速度,但是通过应用晶须增强陶瓷的切削刀具可以显着提高切削速度。
  • 如何铣削尼龙6?
    尼龙6,也称为铸造尼龙或聚酰胺,是一种聚合物,热塑性树脂。通常,铸造尼龙的零件是通过成型(铸造)生产的,但在某些情况下,需要加工这种类型的材料。作为一般规则,铣削铸造尼龙没有问题,尽管有时可能会出现困难,例如由于铸造尼龙的弹性,过热,排屑和加工后零件变形。 在铣削中,对于带可转位刀片的铣刀,典型的初始切削速度估计为400-470 m/min.(1300-1550 sfm),对于具有可更换硬质合金头的整体硬质合金立铣刀和立铣刀,典型初始切削速度估计为450-530 m/min(1480-1750 sfm)。接下来,根据结果,切削速度可以提高到900-1000 m/min(2950-3300 sfm)。较大的值可能会导致过热,因此不建议使用。 如果不是说有必要,强烈建议使用精确定位的空气冷却,特别是通过刀体。
  • What is "pure iron" and how can it be machined?
    Pure iron is the general name of low-carbon non-alloy steel that features an extremely high content of iron (Fe) with an overall trace of other chemical elements up to 0.1%.
    Pure iron is referred to commercially as ARMCO (American Rolling Mill Corporation) Pure Iron, while shop talk language refers to it as "Armco-Iron".
    To machine pure iron, it is recommended to follow ISCAR’s Group 1 (P1) - Material Group Classification when selecting the suitable cutting tool and determining the initial cutting data.
  • 如何加工海军高强度钢?
    海军钢包括各种高强度,高产量的合金钢,主要用于船舶应用,特别是船舶和潜艇的船体。这些钢的典型代表是100 HLES,HY-80,HY-100等。 加工高强度钢的一般方法基于对具有相似强度和硬度特性的合金钢的推荐参数。
  • 什么是PPSU,它是如何加工的?
    PPSU是聚苯砜的首字母缩写 - 一种高温热塑性塑料。因此,在加工PPSU时,请遵循伊斯卡与切削热塑性塑料相关的推荐参数。
  • When specifying materials to be machined, ISO standards use the letter “P” for steel, “M” for stainless steel, and “K” for cast iron. These letters are not directly associated with the material. However, when designating non-ferrous metals, superalloys, and hard materials, the ISO standard uses the letters” N”, “S” and “H”, which are appropriate acronyms. Can you explain a reason?
    ISO adopted the material classification principles that were developed in Germany, and therefore, the origin of the identification letters is in German. For example, the letter “P” relates to the German word «Plastisch» (plastic), "K" to «Kurzspanend» (produced short chips), and "H" to "Hart" (hard), just to name a few.
  • Why does ISCAR continue to use outdated designations such as GGG for nodular cast iron when specifying engineering materials in different guides and ITA software?
    The answer is very simple, outdated designations are still common in the industry and used by the manufacturer. Designations that begin with "GG" for gray cast iron, "GGG" for nodular cast iron (according to the old DIN standards), or "En" for steel (according to the old BS standards), have been replaced by other designations in their appropriate standards. However, despite the newer and formal changes, various outdated material designations are the everyday language of the professional world. Therefore, modern designations have been simultaneously preserved with a few outdated designations, which remain popular among manufacturing professionals.
    As a side note, a similar situation may be observed with commercial names. Some materials are well known by their trademark and not by their standard designation.
  • 什么是高温铝?
    通常,高温铝是硅含量超过12%的铝合金。这种铝合金是超共晶的(也称为“超共晶铝”),而低热膨胀和低比重使合金成为制造超共晶活塞的典型材料。从可加工性的角度来看,高温铝具有相当高的耐磨性。
  • 什么是“纯铁”,如何加工?
    纯铁是低碳非合金钢的总称,其具有极高的铁含量(Fe),其它化学元素的整体微量高达0.1%。 纯铁在商业上被称为ARMCO(American Rolling Mill Corporation公司)纯铁,而专业行话将其称为“Armco-Iron”。 要加工纯铁,建议在选择合适的切削刀具并确定初始切削数据时遵循伊斯卡材料组1(P1)分类。
  • 如何通过名称区分冷轧钢和热轧钢?
    术语“热轧”或“冷轧”与钢的制造方式相关,并不涉及钢的成分或机械性能,这通常是钢的命名系统的主要参数。但是,在某些情况下,技术文档可能会使用这些术语或其缩写(如HR或CR)来凸显制造方法。
  • 高温合金由几种类型的材料组成。这些材料的可加工性如何根据材料类型而变化?
    高温合金(HTSA)根据主要元素分为以下三组:铁基(Fe),镍基(Ni)和钴基(Co)高温合金。通常,切削加工性以相同的顺序下降:铁基高温合金最易于切削,钴基高温合金最难加工。此外,材料制造方法(铸造,锻造,烧结等)也会影响组内的切削加工性。
  • 从切削加工性的角度来看,铁基高温合金能否与难以切削的奥氏体不锈钢相提并论?
    是的,没错。
  • 什么是“CPM钢”?
    首字母缩略词“CPM”是指粉末冶金 - 一种基于烧结方式开发的粉末冶金方法。
  • 氧化铝陶瓷如何加工?
    氧化铝陶瓷是一整组氧化铝基陶瓷材料的总称,这些材料在氧化铝百分比及其实质性性能方面有所不同。由于高硬度和低导热性,加工氧化铝陶瓷的更常见方法是磨削加工,电火花加工,激光辅助切割等。至于“传统”切削,应用硬质合金刀具通常需要刀具涂有金刚石涂层。同时,一些硬度相对较低的氧化铝陶瓷牌号(大约邵氏硬度85)可以通过常规涂层的硬质合金刀具进行加工。
  • 什么是“铜镍合金”,可加工性如何?
    铜镍合金,又称“铜镍”、“镍铜”,是一种以镍为主要合金元素的库珀合金。与普通铜合金相比,铜镍合金的切削加工性较低。
  • 什么是“超高碳钢”?
    在一些钢分类系统中,碳含量极高(通常超过1%,但取决于系统)的高碳钢被命名为“超高碳”。诸如“UHC钢”或“非常高碳钢”以及缩写“UHCS”之类的定义通常用于指定此类钢。超高碳钢具有更高的强度,但很脆。
  • 沉淀硬化(PH)不锈钢属于哪组不锈钢:马氏体不锈钢还是奥氏体不锈钢?
    沉淀硬化不锈钢既可以是马氏体不锈钢,也可以是奥氏体不锈钢,但是,这类不锈钢中最常见的是马氏体不锈钢。还有半奥氏体沉淀硬化不锈钢,退火时为奥氏体,硬化时为马氏体。
  • 奥贝球铁(ADI)和奥氏体球墨铸铁是同一材料吗?
    不,它们是不同类型的铸铁。
  • What is K-Alloy?
    K-Alloy is a durable die-casting aluminum alloy that features high resistance to corrosion. K-Alloy also is referred as to A304.
  • What is free-cutting steel?
    Free-cutting (or free-machining) steel is a collective name for carbon steels that feature the increased content of Sulphur when compared to common carbon steels with similar Carbon percentage. This attribute provides better machinability and chip control.
    刀柄
  • 什么是刀柄TOOL HOLDER?
    TOOL HOLDER刀柄是一种将切削刀具装夹于机床的装置。刀柄的一端夹持切削刀具,另一端装夹于机床主轴。因此,刀柄扮演着介于机床及切削刀具的中间接口的角色。
  • “TOOL HOLDING”与“TOOLING”同义吗?
    “Tool holding” 往往被写作“toolholding”,通常与刀柄系统相关,由各种刀柄组成,诸如心轴、夹头或接柄,以及加长杆、缩径杆、各类环件、套筒等附件。
    “Tooling” 更广义。“Tooling” 泛指用于机床的切削刀具,既可以是刀具也可以是刀柄系统。“Tooling” 有时指工具管理,在特定的环境下又指刀柄系统。
  • 伊斯卡提供夹具吗?
    不,伊斯卡并不提供夹具。伊斯卡的产品有切削刀具、刀柄系统以及刀具管理系统。
  • 伊斯卡提供多棱锥的刀柄吗?
    是的。伊斯卡提供的CAMFIX系列刀柄就是这样的刀柄。
  • 热缩夹头的优势是什么?
    采用热缩夹头Tool holding的优势如下:
    高精度
    高刚性
    出色的高重复定位精度
    夹持柄径部分细长设计,能抵达深腔加工
    动平衡设计,装配后形状对称,消除了在高转速下进行生产制造时的离心力
  • 伊斯卡热缩夹头适合于夹持钢质柄部的刀具吗?
    当然可以。伊斯卡热缩夹头(SRKIN)能夹持硬质合金柄、高速钢柄及钢质柄的刀具。热缩夹头SRKIN系列依据DIN69882-8标准制造,采用该标准制造的热缩夹头是市面上的标准热缩夹头。
    伊斯卡还生产制造细长的热缩夹头SRK。尽管热缩夹头SRK能用于夹持钢质柄刀具,然而我们还是推荐将其用于夹持硬质合金柄刀具。
  • 伊斯卡生产制造用于安装热缩夹头的电感加热器吗?
    是的,伊斯卡生产制造电感加热器。除了提供标准的电感加热器,伊斯卡还提供简化版的便携式电感加热器,作为起步版(入手版),这一设计有利于最终用户以更低的成本购入电感加热器。
  • 高压冷却热缩夹头X-STREAM SHRINKIN的主要设计特点是什么?在什么应用领域使用该产品更高效呢?
    高压冷却热缩夹头X-STREAM SHRINKIN是热缩夹头系列中一种,冷却射流腔槽贯穿热缩夹头内腔。该夹头具有专利保护设计,用于夹持柄部为硬质合金、钢以及高速钢HSS的刀具。新夹头兼具高精度热缩夹头及冷却射流直达切削刃进行冷却的优势。在航空航天工业的铣削加工中,高压冷却热缩夹头X-STREAM SHRINKIN已表现出具有出色的加工性能,尤其是在对钛合金叶片及整体叶盘(带叶片的叶盘)的高速铣削加工中。在深腔加工中,新夹头所提供的高效冷却显著提高了排屑性能,并使得切屑免于被再次切削。
  • 什么是内冷增速主轴SPINJET,它们用于什么场合?
    伊斯卡内冷增速主轴SPINJET是利用内冷却液驱动的紧凑型高速主轴,用于夹持小直径刀具。是一种“增压器”用于将已有机床升级,能进行高速加工。凭借冷却液压力及流量,主轴能保持高速运转,最高达55000 rpm。通用的内冷增速主轴SPINJET产品已成功地被整合到铣削、钻削、螺纹铣削、雕刻铣、倒角、去毛刺,甚至是径向精磨。内冷增速主轴SPINJET推荐用于夹持直径小于7 mm (.275 in)的刀具,而夹持刀具的最佳直径范围为0.5-4 mm (.020-.157 in)。
  • 伊斯卡提供带识别芯片的刀柄吗?
    伊斯卡HSK刀柄能配置模块式芯片套装,用于内置无线射频识别(RFID)芯片。伊斯卡名义尺寸为C4的三棱锥CAMFIX刀柄(32,依据ISO 26623-1标准)以及更多的刀柄上制造了此孔。 应用户的特殊需求,伊斯卡还能在所有类型的刀柄上提供放置无线射频识别(RFID)芯片的模块式芯片套装。 注:在放置无线射频识别(RFID)芯片后需对刀柄进行调整,这非常重要。
  • 伊斯卡提供数显镗头吗?
    当然。伊斯卡ITSBORE镗削系列包括带数显的可调式镗头。这些镗头具有高调整精度且易于调整的特点。以mm/inch为单位的清楚的数字显示有助于避免人为错误。
  • 以mandrel及以arbor称呼的心轴有区别吗?
    没有本质上的区别,两款心轴都装夹棒状物件,通常需要旋转,用于夹持工件或切削刀具。
  • 伊斯卡提供装夹丝锥的刀柄吗?
    是的。用于攻丝的刀柄产品包括快速式ER型卡簧,圆柱柄刀柄以及锥度为7:24的刀柄,例如:
    GTI攻丝夹头,直柄,轴向浮动/压缩/拉伸类型攻丝夹头
    GTIN,紧凑型攻丝夹头系列,基于ER弹簧夹头夹持丝锥
    TCS/TCC快换式攻丝夹套,ITSBORE模块式镗削系统的一部分
  • 什么是“工程设计平衡”?
    工程设计平衡Engineered balance 是一种确定理论动态刀体轴线上的质量分布的设计方法,通过这种方法,工程师尝试在设计阶段生产制造之前就确定需要的动平衡参数。CAD系统环境的三维模型极大地扩展了这种工程设计平衡的能力。由于工程设计平衡针对的是虚拟目标,无法替代实际工件的“物理平衡”,但是工程设计平衡能够持续不断地最小化质量不平衡的特征从而使实际的物理平衡更加易于达成。 遵守工程设计平衡原则是一个熟练的设计旋转刀具的设计工程师必须具备的特点。
    ShopTalk 专业行话
  • Metal cutting, like other fields of industrial activity, has its own professional jargon that is often used in shop talk. We decided to devote a separate section to more common jargon, even though they may appear already in the other FAQ sections.

    切角 –通常指车削刀片的切削刃。

    GDT –加工中的几何尺寸和公差。

    圆角刀具 –通常指旋转式整体刀具。